Lecture 5: Eyewitness testimony and Police interviewing Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Lecture 5: Eyewitness testimony and Police interviewing Deck (51)
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What is the encoding stage of memory?

When you perceive and pay attention to details in your environment.


What is the storage stage?

encoded information that passes into your short term holding facility. Your short term memory has a limited capacity.


What is the long term memory/retrieval stage

Your short term memories pass into your long term memories to make room for new memories. Information from your long term memory can be accessed or retrieved as needed.


What is recall memory?

reporting details of a previously witnessed event or person


What is recognition memory?

determining whether a previously seen item or person is the same as what is currently being viewed.


What is an estimator variables?

Variables that are present at the time of the crime and that cannot be changed


What are system variables?

variables that can be manipulated to increase (or decrease) eyewitness accuracy.


What is open ended recall

witnesses are asked to either write or orally state all they remember about the event without the officer (or experimenter) asking questions. Also known as free narrative


What are the three types of dependent variables in eyewitness studies?

1) recall of the event/crime 2) recall of the perpetrator and 3) recognition of the perpetrator


Laboratory studies

Lab: Participant views critical event such as a crime through a slide sequence, a video recording or live. The participant is unaware that he/she will be questioned after. Now a witness, the participant is asked to describe what happened and the target/perpetrator involved, the witness may be asked to view a line up.


Field studies

High external validity, low internal


What is the yerkes dodson law effect?

eye witnesses have an optimal zone of arousal (too little arousal didn’t place any importance on it, too high stress)


What is memory conformity?

when what one witness reports influences what another reports


What is the misinformation effect?

Phenomenon where a witness who is presented with inaccurate information after an event will incorporate that misinformation into a subsequent recall task. Also known as the post event information effect.


What is the misinformation acceptance hypothesis?

Explanation for the misinformation effect where the incorrect information is provided because the witness guesses what the officer or the experimenter wants the response to be


what is the source misattribution hypothesis?

explanation for the misinformation effect where the witness has two memories, the original and the misinformation; however the witness cannot remember where each memory originated or the source of each


What is memory impairment hypothesis?

explanation for the misinformation effect where the original memory is replaced with the new, incorrect information


How could hypnosis help with memory recall?

it is assumed that a person under hypnosis is able to retrieve memories that are otherwise inaccesible. A hypnotized witness may be able to produce a greater number of details than a non-hypnotized witness; this phenomenon is term hypnotically refreshed memory.


What is the cognitive interview?

interview procedure for use with eyewitnesses based on principles of memory storage and retrieval.


What are the four memory retrieval techniques that are used to increase recall?

1) reinstating the context 2) reporting everything 3) reversing order and 4) changing perspective


What is the enhanced cognitive interview?

interview procedure that includes various principles of social dynamics in addition to the memory retrieval principles used in the original cognitive interview.


What are the additional components in the enhanced cognitive interview?

Rapport building: an officer should spend time building rapport with the witness and make him/her feel comfortable/supported
Supportive interviewer behaviour: a witnesses free recall should not be interrupted paused should be waited out by the officer, who should express attention to what the witness is saying
Transfer of control: the witness, not the officer should control the flow of the interview.
Focused retrieval: questions should be open ended and not leading or suggestive
Witness compatible questioning: an officers questions should match the witness' thinking


Suspect vs. Perpetrator

A suspect is a person the police suspect committed the crime, who may be guilty or innocent of the crime in question. A perpetrator is the guilty person who committed the crime


Lineup distractors/foils

Lineup members who are known to be innocent of the crime in question


Target present lineup vs. target absent lineup

Target present contains the perpetrator, and target absent is a lineup that does not contain the perpetrator.


what three identification decisions can be made with a target present line up?

The witnesses can identify the guilty suspect, which is a correct identification. if the witness identifies a foil, the witness may also state that the perpetrator is not present which is a false rejection


Three type of identification decisions that can occur with a target absent lineup

the witness can say the perpetrator is absent, which is a correct rejection, the witness can identify a foil (foil identification) or the witness can identify an innocent suspect which is a false identification


What is the simultaneous lineup?

Perhaps the most common lineup, a lineup procedure that presents all lineup members at one time to the witness. this procedure encourages the witness to make relative judgement, whereby lineup members are compared with one another and the person who looks most like the perpetrator is identified


What is the sequential lineup?

alternative lineup procedure where the lineup members are presented serially to the witness, and the witness must make a decision as to whether the lineup member is the perpetrator before seeing another member. Also, a witness cannot ask to see previously seen photos and is unaware of the number of photos to be shown. Witnesses may be more likely to make absolute judgement whereby each perpetrator is compared with the witnesses memory.


What is a show up?

Identification procedure that shows one person to the witness: the suspect. Courts and researchers have found it to be less than ideal because witnesses may know that the police suspect this perpetrator and thus they identify them as it