Lecture 2 The Skull and Cranial Cavity Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Lecture 2 The Skull and Cranial Cavity Deck (57)
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1

what is the scalp

tissues covering the skull superficially

2

what makes up the scalp

Skin
Connective tissue (dense)
aponeurosis of occipitofrontalis muscle
Loose connective tissue
periosteum of the skull

3

Which layer of the scalp will contain the majority of the blood vessels supplying the tissues of the scalp?

dense connective tissue

4

what happens when the scalp is lacerated

bleed profusely

5

why does the scalp bleed profusely

dct unable to retract to original position so bv's stay open
Aponeurotic layer and loose connective tissue moves

6

what must happen when suturing the scalp

all layers closed in suturing

7

what is the skull

bony casing surrounding the brain

8

what makes up the skull

neurocranium
viscerocranium

9

what is the neurocranium

bones surrounding the brain

10

what is the viscerocranium

facial skeleton

11

how do the skull bones join

at sutures
form at 5y/o

12

what is the skull like before the sutures close

cartilaginous structures called fontanelles present
allow brain to move and grow

13

what makes up the neurocranium

most bones share names with lobe of brain they cover
parietal
occipital
temporal
sphenoid
frontal
ethmoid

14

what makes up the viscerocranium

nasal
lacrimal
vomer
maxilla
zygoma
inferior conchae
mandible

15

what makes up the viscerocranium

nasal
lacrimal
vomer
maxilla
zygoma
inferior conchae
mandible

16

which bone does not directly suture to the frontal bone

mandible

17

what is the pterion

suture point between the frontal, parietal, temporal and sphenoid
weak point

18

what runs deep to the pterion

middle meningeal artery (MMA)

19

what may occur in children before the pterion closes

hydrocephalus
due to cartilage so can move to increase space and reduce pressure
In adult intercranial pressure will affect brain, deficits and death as pressure cannot be relieved

20

what is an aneurysm and haemorrhage

Aneurysm is weakness in blood vessel wall
Haemorrhage is the rupture of aneurysm
Pressure causes brain to shift due to compromised vasculature

21

what is a foramina

small hole
sites of exit (eg veins and cranial nerves) and entry (arteries)

22

what is cranial nerve I

olfactory

23

what is cranial nerve II

Optic

24

what is cranial nerve III

oculomotor (move eye)

25

what is cranial nerve IV

Trochlear (muscle)

26

what is cranial nerve V

trigeminal (portions of the face)
V1 ophthalmic
V2 Maxillary
V3 Mandibular

27

what is cranial nerve VI

Abducens (abduct eye)

28

what is cranial nerve VII

facial

29

what is cranial nerve VIII

Vestibulocochlear (inner ear)

30

what is cranial nerve IX

Glossopharyngeal (tongue)

31

what is cranial nerve X

Vagus (everything)

32

what is cranial nerve XI

accessory (shrug shoulders)

33

what is cranial nerve XII

hypoglossal (tongue)

34

what runs through the cribriform plate

Foramina
CN1

35

What runs through the optic canal

foramina
CN2, ophthalmic artery

36

what runs through the superior orbital fissure

CN3,4,6,5(V1)

37

What runs through the rotundum

CN5 V2

38

What runs through the ovale

CN5 V3, AMMA

39

What runs through the spinosum

MMA

40

What runs through the lacerum

carotid artery runs over the top

41

what runs through the internal acoustic meatus

CN7 and 8

42

what runs through the jugular foramen

CN9,10,11,IJV

43

What runs through the hypoglossal canal

CN12

44

What runs through the hypoglossal canal

CN12

45

What runs through the magnum

spinal cord

46

what are the cranial foramen

cribriform plate, optic canal, superior orbital fissure, rotundum, ovale, spinosum, lacerum, internal acoustic meatus, jugular foramen, hypoglossal canal, magnum

47

what are therein arteries that supply the brain

internal courted artery and vertebral artery (L and R)

48

what do the main arteries supplying the brain do

the branches anastomose to form the cerebral arterial circle
aka circle of willis

49

what do the vertebral arteries do

enter at foramen magnum where they unite to form the basilar artery

50

Where is the common carotid found

deep to sternocleidomastoid
useful pulsation point
internal supplies brain
external carotid supplies face

51

what forms the cerebral arterial circle

anastomosis between 2 internal carotid arteries and 2 vertebral arteries
allow for collateral circulation

52

what does the cerebral arterial circle give rise to

anterior
middle
posterior
-cerebral arteries

53

what does the anterior cerebral artery do

supplies medial and superior surfaces of the brain and frontal pole

54

what does the middle cerebral artery do

supplies the lateral surfaces and temporal pole

55

what does the posterior cerebral artery do

supplies the inferior surfaces and occipital pole

56

what causes strokes

embolism in cerebral artery as no anastomoses of cerebral arteries once in brain so no way to avoid ischaemia leading to neuro deficit

57

what is a mnemonic to remember the cranial nerves

Oh Oh Oh to touch and feel a girls vagina, so hot