Lecture 2: Thoracic Walls & Breast Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Lecture 2: Thoracic Walls & Breast Deck (29)
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1

What is the role of the thoracic wall?

To protect viscera
Is the mechanical basis of breathing

2

What is the thoracic wall made up of?

The thoracic cage and coverings

3

What are the three types of ribs?

True (1-7)
False (8-10)
Floating (11 & 12)

4

Which ribs are atypical?

1
2
10
11
12

5

Which ribs are typical?

3-9

6

What is found in the intercostal space?

Muscle
Nerves
Vessels

7

What are the three layers of intercostal muscle?

External intercostal muscles (and membrane)
Internal intercostal muscles
Innermost intercostal muscles

8

What structures does the costal groove protect?

Intercostal vein
Intercostal artery
Intercostal nerve

9

What are the superficial muscles that cover the thoracic wall?

Pectoralis minor
Pectoralis major
Subclavius
Serratus anterior
Serratus posterior

10

What are the coverings of the thoracic cage?

Subcutaneous fat
Subcutaneous fascia
Skin

11

Where does the mammary gland sit and how is it attached?

Sits on fascia superficial to pectoralis major
Attached to skin and fascia by suspensory ligaments

12

How many lobules does the mammary gland have and what do they contain?

15-20 lobules
Contain alveoli (milk secreting portion of the lobule)

13

What dermatome innervates the teets?

T4 teets

14

What dermatome innervates the belly button?

T10

15

What are the attachments and movements of pectoralis minor?

Coracoid process to ribs 3, 4, 5
Elevates ribes/stabilises scapula

16

What are the 3 attachments and movements of pectoralis major?

Clavicular head and sternal head to humerus (bicipital groove)
Adducts the arm

17

What are the attachments and movements of serratus anterior?

Lateral aspect of ribs 1-8 to the medial border of the anterior surface of scapula
Protracts the scapula

18

What are the attachments and movements of serratus posterior?

Spinous processes of C7-T3 to angle of ribs 2-5
Elevates the ribs

Spinous processes of T11-L2 to angle of ribs 9-12
Depresses the ribs

19

Where is the retomammary space and what can it be used for?

Between the pec major and breast tissue
Important in breast implants and mastectomy

20

What is the mammary gland drained by?

The lactiferous duct which opens independently on the nipple

21

What portion of breast sits on the serratus anterior and pectoralis major?

Serratus anterior: 1/3
Pectoralis major: 2/3

22

What ribs can the breast be found on?

Ribs 2-6

23

What is the areola?

The pigmented area around the nipple that has sebaceous glands for lubrication

24

At what level is the nipple found?

At the 4th intercostal space in the mid-clavicular line (nulliporous women)

25

What is the nipple?

The opening of the lactiferous ducts, smooth muscle, no fat/hair/sweat glands

26

What are the two types of mammograms and who are they used on?

Dense (connective tissue & glands) - younger women
Low density (fatty) - older women

27

What is the blood supply to the breast?

Subclavian artery > axillary artery > lateral thoracic artery > lateral mammary branches

Internal thoracic artery (through intercostal space) > medial mammary branches

Lateral mammary branches of posterior intercostal arteries

28

What is the venous drainage of the breast?

Internal jugular vein > subclavian vein > axillary vein > lateral thoracic vein > lateral mammary vein

Internal thoracic vein > medial mammary vein

29

Where does 75% of lymph from the breast end up?

In the axillary nodes