Localized somatic stimuli producing patterns of reflex response in segmentally related somatic structures defines?
Locaized somatic stimulatio producing patterns of reflex in segmentally related visceral structures defines?
Localized visceral stimuli producing patterns of reflex response in segmentally related somatic structures defines?
Localized visceral stimuli producing patterns of reflex in segmentally related visceral structures defines?
A somatosomatic reflex response that occurs when a noxious stimulus is applied to a somatic structure?
The somatosomatic reflex response that occurs when a stretch receptor is stimulated and the stretched muscle receives the impulse to fire, while its antagonist receives an inhibitory message
Nociceptive somatic stimuli results in elevation of heart rate and BP is example of?
The radiation of pain to the shoulder that occurs with an MI is an example of what kind of reflex?
- Viscerosomatic reflex
- Somatic pain referral due to visceral nociceptive stimuli
A group of palpable points occurring in predictable locations on the anterior and posterior surfaces of the body that are considered to be reflections of visceral dysfunction or disease, defines what?
Chapman located over 200 center on the body surface and established their association with the visceral and endocrine glands. When did he publish his observations and the first chart?
In what text?
Lymphatic reflexes: a specific method of osteopathic diagnosis and treatment
Chapman's Reflexes are manifested by _________ contractions, which are believed to be congestions within ________?
- Gangliform contractions
- Congestions within fascia due to lymph stasis secondary to visceral dysfunction
What are the 3 component characteristics of Chapmans Reflexes?
1) Viscerosomatic reflex of both diagnostic and treatment value
2) Gangliform contraction that blocks lymphatic drainage and causes SNS dysfunction (neurolymphatic)
3) A consistent reproducible series of points both anterior and posterior related to specific organs or conditions
What are the palpatory features of Chapman's points?
- Located deep to the skin in the subcutaneous areolar tissue on deep fascia or periosteum
- Paired anterior and posterior points in most cases
- Small, smooth and firm nodule (boba tea pearls)
- ~2-3 mm in diameter
- Dense, but not hard
Owens desribed Chapman's points using what 5 adjectives?
3) Ridge-like or ropy
For a CR point to be positive, what is the criteria?
Generally recommended to initially use which CR for diagnostic purposes?
- Both anterior and the posterior CR should be
- Initially use the anterior CR for diagnostic purposes
Once a CR is found and isolated what kind of pressure should be applied by examiner?
GENTLE and FIRM pressure
The pain elicited by a CR is characteristically?
Pinpoint, sharp, and non-radiating
What are the 2 principles when using CRs as a diagnostic tool?
1) Never make a diagnosis based solely on a nontender CR
2) Never ignore or trivialize a tender CR, unless you have a good explanation for the findings
What are the contraindications for treating CRs?
1) Anytime a patient is emergent care the emphasis is always on Airway, Breathing, and Circulation, not OMT
2) Patient refusal
3) Relatively contraindicated with fracture and cancer, other patient instabilitiy
How would you document a Chapmans reflex on right lower lung in SOAP note?
Objective: Musculoskeletal: Chapman's reflex on right for lower lung
Assessment: Somatic dysfunction, other
Plan: OMT done using soft tissue, lymphatics
What are the post-treatment recommendations after treatment of Chapman's reflex?
Pain management meds?
- Drink plenty of water (1-3 liters) over the next 24 hours (adults)
- Patients may take what they 'normally' take for pain management, as long as there are no other contraindications
In 1901, Chapman had a patient with severe _______ whose response to osteopathic treatment directed to the spine was slow.
Indications for diagnosis and for treatment of Chapman's Reflexes?
For diagnosis: as part of a screening exam when clinically indicated from patient history
For treatment: upon finding a CR that is possibly clinically relevant for the patient
Where is the anterior Chapman's Reflex for Stomach acidity?
L 5th ICS
What are the Anterior and Posterior Chapman's points for Tonsilitis?
Anterior: 1st ICS
Posterior: C1, midway along the articular process
What are the Anterior and Posterior Chapman's points for Pharyngitis?
Anterior: 1st rib, where the clavicle crosses it
Posterior: C2, midway between SP and TP