Lecture 21: PCOS Flashcards Preview

PSIO 469 Exam 04 > Lecture 21: PCOS > Flashcards

Flashcards in Lecture 21: PCOS Deck (19):
1

What is PCOS?

Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome

2

What is associated with PCOS?

- Often presents with insulin resistance
- not always associated with obesity
- major risk factor for: type 2 diabetes, gestational diabetes and cardiovascular disease

3

What was the '91 criteria for PCOS?
Is it one or all of the following?

- Hyperandrogenism
- Chronic anovulation
- Exclusion of known disorders
All of the following

4

What is the '03 criteria for PCOS?
Is it one or all of the criteria?

- Hyperandrogenism
- Chronic anovulation
- Polycystic ovaries
2 of the 3 following

5

What is Polycystic ovaries?

enlarged ovaries containing at least 12 follicles each

6

Ovarian Hyperandrogenism
Pulsatile _____ release is essential for maintenance for ______ release

GnRH
Gonadotropin

7

Ovarian Hyperandrogenism
Frequency of ____ pulses determines which ________ hormone is preferentially synthesized.

GnRH
Gonadotropin

8

Ovarian Hyperandrogenism
_____ GnRH pulses favor ___
_____ GnRH pulses favor ___

Rapid; LH
Slower: FSH

9

Ovarian Hyperandrogenism
PCOS patients have ______ GnRH pulsatility.
Increased pulsatility favors ____ over ____ (ratio of __:___>_)

increased.
LH; FSH
LH: FSH; 1

10

Ovarian Hyperandrogenism
Increased ___:___ ratio favors ______ production with less ________ to _______ by granulosa cells.

FSH: LH; androgen
aromatization; estrogen

11

Ovarian Hyperandrogenism
What are some of the consequences of Androgen excess? (3)

- Hirsutism
- Acne
- Androgenic Alopecia

12

What are ovarian cysts?
how do they show up on an ultrasound?

- small fluid-filled sacs that develop in the ovaries
- show up in a black color

13

Ovarian cysts are only cancerous?
T/F

False; they can be both cancerous and noncancerous

14

What are follicular cysts?

- noncancerous cysts
- forms when ovulation does not occur or when a mature follicle collapses on itself

15

Women with PCOS have large number of:

small follicular cysts

16

Insulin Resistance with PCOS
PCOS subjects are insulin resistance compared to controls with similar:
Obesity confers additional:

BMI
Insulin resistance

17

What are some metabolic pathways for insulin resistance signaling?

energy storage:
- Glucose Uptake
- Glycogen Synthesis
- Fatty Acid Synthesis

18

What are some mitogenic pathways for insulin resistance signaling?

Growth, Differentiation, Cell proliferation
- Protein synthesis
- Gene Expression

19

Insulin has _____ (_______) actions.
_____-phosphorylated insulin receptor (__), phosphorylates ______ substrates, such as ___ and ___, initiating ______ ______ _____

pleiotropic; (multiple)
tyrosine, IR
Intracellular, IRS
Shc, signal transduction pathways