Flashcards in Lecture 23: Lactation Deck (47):
Which part of the mammary gland consist of the "cluster of milk containing the alveoli?"
Which synthesize and secrete milk
Which contract to decrease the volume of alveoli
What are the 5 steps of milk synthesis and secretion
1. Secretory Pathway
2. Transcellular endocytosis/exocytosis
3. Lipid Pathway
4. Transcellular salt and water transport through channels and transport
5. Paracellluar pathway for ions and water
What 3 substances are in the secretory pathway?
What 3 substances are in the Transcellular Endocytosis/Exocytosis?
3. Growth Factors
What does Mammogenic Hormones do?
Promote Cell Proliferation
What 4 substances are affected by Lobulo-Alveolar Growth?
- Growth Hormones
What 3 substances are affected by Ductal Growth?
- Growth Hormone
What do Lactogenic Hormones do?
Promote initiation of milk production by alveolar cells
What 5 hormones affected by Lactogenic?
- Human Chorionic Somatomammotropin
- Insulin (affect premies)
- Thyroid Hormones
What other hormones are in the same family of Somatomammotropin
GH and Prolactin
What two hormones inhibit milk production?
What do they do?
Estrogen: Removal of inhibition with parturition permits lactation
Progesterone: Combination OCPs may interfere with lactation
What does Galactokinetic Hormones do? name a hormone affected by it?
Promote contraction of myoepithelial cells and milk ejection
What does Galactopoietic Hormones do? what 2 hormones affected by it
Maintain milk production after it has been established
- Prolactin and GH
What is rBST and rBGH?
what do they do?
- recombinant Bovine Somatotropin
- recombinant Bovine Growth Hormones
- increases milk yield in lactating cows
Which hormone removes inhibition?
Which hormone affects the Epithelial Cells?
Which hormone affects the Myoepithelial cells?
Lactation Stimuli and Hormone Release
____ can become conditioned to stimuli other than suckling.
Lactation Stimuli and Hormone Release
_____ is not secreted in response to anticipatory stimuli?
Human Colostrum's nutrients consist of?
When is this made?
Low Fat and Carbs, High proteins and lost of antibodies
- Made the first 5 days post-partum
Human milk's nutrients consist of?
High Fat and Carbs, low protein, fat soluble vitamins, antibodies
Cow's milk's nutrients consist of?
3x more proteins ( due to casein), high electrolyte content
Infant Formula's nutrients consist of?
More protein, less fat, more electrolytes and no cells
AAP recommends that babies be breastfed?
~ first 6 months of life
Baby needs no additional foods, (except _____) or _____ unless medically indicted
Babies should continue to breastfeed:
for a year and for as long as it is mutually desired by mother and baby
What is Lactational Amenorrhea?
What is Anovulation?
Lack of menstrual cycle
Lack of ovulatory cycles
Durational of lactational amenorrhea is affected by:
high variability, due to frequency and duration of lactation
Plasma LH is undetectable on day__ post partum
After 4 weeks postpartum:
No LH pulses in 6 out of 9 fully breastfeeding women
After 8 weeks postpartum:
LH pulses in 9 out of 11 fully breastfeeding women
Limited estradiol at 16 weeks indicates:
presence of a follicle
Follicle growth noted after ______ but associated with inadequate _____ _____
This resumes after complete weaning?
Normal menstrual cycle
This gene codes for Kisspeptin:
Lactation suppresses _____ ____ expression in ARC
An injection of this stimulates pulsatile LH secretion in lactating rats:
____ neurons are capable of responding of _______, suggesting lactation inhibits_____ expression to _____ of __ secretion
What 6 reasons to use a breast pump?
1. Return to work
2. Travel or any other separation from baby
3. allow father or others to bottle feed baby
4. Collect milk to feed to premature baby
5. Boost milk supply
6. Poor suckling behavior by baby
What does Donor Milk banking do?
collection, screening, processing and distribution of human milk from volunteer breastfeeding mothers
What does Informal Milk Sharing do?
Sharing expressed milk with friends, neighbors or acquaintances but can spread potential diseases and bacteria due to inadequate screening
Name the 4 types of breast implant surgery?
1) Periareolar ("smile' incision around areola)
2) Transaxillary (armpit)
3) Transumbilical (though bellybutton)
4) Inframammary Fold (underneath breast)
Which of the 4 incisions is bad and why?
Periareolar, because it can cut or damage nerves in the duct system
______ placement is above the chest wall muscle.
______ placement is below the chest wall muscle.