Lecture 22 - Pulmonary Ventilation Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Lecture 22 - Pulmonary Ventilation Deck (38):
1

These anatomical structures of the nasal cavity serve to humidify and warm incoming air. A. Uvulae B. Respiratory epithelium C. Nasal conchae D. Nasal blood vessels

C. Nasal conchae

2

This region is comprised of psuedostratified columnar epithelium containing goblet cells. There is also incomplete cartilaginous rings. A. Carina B. Trachea C. Bronchi D. Lung lobes

B. Trachea

3

This region is the branching of the trachea into the primary bronchi. It is sensitive to irritation and produces a cough reflex. A. Carina B. Trachea C. Bronchi D. Lung lobes

A. Carina

4

These contain numerous branchings, is comprised of ciliated columnar epithelium, and numerous cartilaginous plates. A. Carina B. Trachea C. Bronchi D. Lung lobes

C. Bronchi

5

This branching of the bronchi supplies the lungs. A. Primary B. Secondary C. Tertiary

A. primary

6

Small (<1mm diameter) regions of the trachebronchiol tree. They lack cartilage and contain much smooth muscle. 

Bronchioles

7

This branching of the bronchi supplies lung lobules A. Primary B. Secondary C. Tertiary

C. tertiary

8

Region of the tracheobronchial tree immediately preceding the region of gas exchange. A. Alveoli B. Tertiary bronchi C. Alveolar ducts D. Bronchioles

C. Alveolar ducts

9

This branching of the bronchi supplies the lung lobes A. Primary B. Secondary C. Tertiary

B. secondary

10

This muscle is the primary muscle of inhalation. During its contraction, it increases the volume of the chest cavity. A. Serratus anterior muscle B. Rectus abdominus C. Diaphragm D. External intercostal muscles

C. Diaphragm

11

A patient is transported by EMS to the ED for severe respiratory distress. During report, the attending paramedic states the patient has "...significant accessory muscle use." When examining the patient, which muscle would you know is being used that is not an accessory muscle? A. Serratus anterior muscle B. Rectus abdominus C. Diaphragm D. External intercostal muscles

C. Diaphragm

12

Expiration occurs as an (active/passive process).

Passive. The relaxation of the respiratory diaphragm results in a decrease in chest cavity volume. This produces increased pressure, which causes exhalation.

13

Contraction of the ____________ causes an increased vertical and anterior/posterior diameter of the chest cavity. A. external intercostals B. internal intercostals

A. external intercostals

14

When relaxed, the accessory muscles ________ cause a decrease in chest cavity volume. A. external intercostals B. internal intercostals

B. internal intercostals

15

More than two lung volumes is considered a _________.

capcity

16

Non-overlapping, non-anatomical "sub-compartments" are known as lung _________

volumes

17

maximum volume to which the lungs can be expanded with the greatest possible effort (about 5800 milliliters); equals vital capacity plus the residual volume

Total Lung Capacity

18

Air inspired or expired with each breath at rest; equal to approximately 500 mL

Tidal volume

19

The amount of air that can be inspired with forceful inspiration; is equal to approximately 3000 mL of air

Inspiratory reserve volume (IRV)

20

Additional air that can be expired at end of tidal volume with forceful expiration; equal to approximately 1100 mL

Expiratory reserve volume (ERV)

21

Air remaining after forceful expiration; appx. 1200 mL

Residual volume

22

Q image thumb

A image thumb
23

4600 mL; is the sum of all volumes inhaled or expired. Inspiration to the maxiumum extent plus exhalation to the maximum extent.

Vital capacity

24

5800 mL; sum of all volumes

Total lung capacity

25

Tidal volume + IRV

inspiratory capacity

26

Expiratory reserve volume + residiual volume

Functional reserve capacity

27

A patient is in obvious respiratory distress. The patient's family states he has been sick recently with an upper airway infection. The patient is noted to be breathing at a rate of 32 breaths per minute. He has a minute ventilation (Ve) of 8000mL/min. What is his tidal volume?

Ve = RR x TV

 

8,000mL/min = 32 BPM x TV

TV = (8000mL/min)/32 BPM

TV = 250 mL

28

A patient has severe emphysema (a clinical condition where alveoli collapse and are unable to participate in gas exchange). During an emphysema flare-up, the patient is found breathing at 40 breaths per minute. Due to the emphysema, the patients tidal volume is reduced from 500 mL to 350 mL per breath. Alveolar ventilation is noted to be 1500 mL/min. What is the physiologic dead space present, if one assumes all dead space is physiological?

1500 mL/min = 40 BPM x (350 mL - x) 

1500 mL/min = (14000 BPM/min)  - 40(x)

1500 mL/min + 40BPM(x) = 14000 BPM/min

29

This regions does not participate in gase exchange. What is its name and formula?

Dead space;

 

Vd = Vtotal x (PaCO2-PeCO2)/PaCO2

 

PaCO2= partial pressure of arterial CO2

PeCO2 = partial pressure of expired CO2

30

Pressure between parietal and visceral pleura

pleural pressure

31

Pressure within alveoli

alveolar pressure

32

A patient has an alveolar pressure of 32 cm H2O and a pleural pressure of 16 cm H2O. What is the transpulmonary pressure?

P = Ppleural - Palveolar

 

P = 16-32

P = -16 cmH2O

33

The volume to which lungs will expand for each unit of increase of transpulmonary pressure.

compliance

34

Compliance is equal to:

distensibility x volume

 

Volume/Pressure = compliance

35

In regard to surface tension, the water surface within alveoli lead to a tendencey for the alveoli to (contract/expand).

contract

36

Surfactant is produced by:

A. Type I alveolar cells

B. Type II alveolar cells

C. Type III alveolar cells

D. Type IV alveolar cells

B. Type II

37

The primary component of surfactant responsible for decreased alveolar surface tension is _____________.

A. Calcium

B. Water

C. Apoprotein

D. Phosphatidylcholine

D. Phosphatidylcholine

38

If air flow into an alveolus is blocked, the alveoli collapses due to increased surface tension. What is the pressure inversely proportional to?

A. Surface tension

B. alveolar radius

C. Amount of CO2 present in the alvolus

B. alveolar radius