These anatomical structures of the nasal cavity serve to humidify and warm incoming air. A. Uvulae B. Respiratory epithelium C. Nasal conchae D. Nasal blood vessels
C. Nasal conchae
This region is comprised of psuedostratified columnar epithelium containing goblet cells. There is also incomplete cartilaginous rings. A. Carina B. Trachea C. Bronchi D. Lung lobes
This region is the branching of the trachea into the primary bronchi. It is sensitive to irritation and produces a cough reflex. A. Carina B. Trachea C. Bronchi D. Lung lobes
These contain numerous branchings, is comprised of ciliated columnar epithelium, and numerous cartilaginous plates. A. Carina B. Trachea C. Bronchi D. Lung lobes
This branching of the bronchi supplies the lungs. A. Primary B. Secondary C. Tertiary
Small (<1mm diameter) regions of the trachebronchiol tree. They lack cartilage and contain much smooth muscle.
This branching of the bronchi supplies lung lobules A. Primary B. Secondary C. Tertiary
Region of the tracheobronchial tree immediately preceding the region of gas exchange. A. Alveoli B. Tertiary bronchi C. Alveolar ducts D. Bronchioles
C. Alveolar ducts
This branching of the bronchi supplies the lung lobes A. Primary B. Secondary C. Tertiary
This muscle is the primary muscle of inhalation. During its contraction, it increases the volume of the chest cavity. A. Serratus anterior muscle B. Rectus abdominus C. Diaphragm D. External intercostal muscles
A patient is transported by EMS to the ED for severe respiratory distress. During report, the attending paramedic states the patient has "...significant accessory muscle use." When examining the patient, which muscle would you know is being used that is not an accessory muscle? A. Serratus anterior muscle B. Rectus abdominus C. Diaphragm D. External intercostal muscles
Expiration occurs as an (active/passive process).
Passive. The relaxation of the respiratory diaphragm results in a decrease in chest cavity volume. This produces increased pressure, which causes exhalation.
Contraction of the ____________ causes an increased vertical and anterior/posterior diameter of the chest cavity. A. external intercostals B. internal intercostals
A. external intercostals
When relaxed, the accessory muscles ________ cause a decrease in chest cavity volume. A. external intercostals B. internal intercostals
B. internal intercostals
More than two lung volumes is considered a _________.
Non-overlapping, non-anatomical "sub-compartments" are known as lung _________
maximum volume to which the lungs can be expanded with the greatest possible effort (about 5800 milliliters); equals vital capacity plus the residual volume
Total Lung Capacity
Air inspired or expired with each breath at rest; equal to approximately 500 mL
The amount of air that can be inspired with forceful inspiration; is equal to approximately 3000 mL of air
Inspiratory reserve volume (IRV)
Additional air that can be expired at end of tidal volume with forceful expiration; equal to approximately 1100 mL
Expiratory reserve volume (ERV)
Air remaining after forceful expiration; appx. 1200 mL
4600 mL; is the sum of all volumes inhaled or expired. Inspiration to the maxiumum extent plus exhalation to the maximum extent.
5800 mL; sum of all volumes
Total lung capacity
Tidal volume + IRV
Expiratory reserve volume + residiual volume
Functional reserve capacity
A patient is in obvious respiratory distress. The patient's family states he has been sick recently with an upper airway infection. The patient is noted to be breathing at a rate of 32 breaths per minute. He has a minute ventilation (Ve) of 8000mL/min. What is his tidal volume?
Ve = RR x TV
8,000mL/min = 32 BPM x TV
TV = (8000mL/min)/32 BPM
TV = 250 mL
A patient has severe emphysema (a clinical condition where alveoli collapse and are unable to participate in gas exchange). During an emphysema flare-up, the patient is found breathing at 40 breaths per minute. Due to the emphysema, the patients tidal volume is reduced from 500 mL to 350 mL per breath. Alveolar ventilation is noted to be 1500 mL/min. What is the physiologic dead space present, if one assumes all dead space is physiological?
1500 mL/min = 40 BPM x (350 mL - x)
1500 mL/min = (14000 BPM/min) - 40(x)
1500 mL/min + 40BPM(x) = 14000 BPM/min
This regions does not participate in gase exchange. What is its name and formula?
Vd = Vtotal x (PaCO2-PeCO2)/PaCO2
PaCO2= partial pressure of arterial CO2
PeCO2 = partial pressure of expired CO2
Pressure between parietal and visceral pleura
Pressure within alveoli
A patient has an alveolar pressure of 32 cm H2O and a pleural pressure of 16 cm H2O. What is the transpulmonary pressure?
P = Ppleural - Palveolar
P = 16-32
P = -16 cmH2O
The volume to which lungs will expand for each unit of increase of transpulmonary pressure.
Compliance is equal to:
distensibility x volume
Volume/Pressure = compliance
In regard to surface tension, the water surface within alveoli lead to a tendencey for the alveoli to (contract/expand).
Surfactant is produced by:
A. Type I alveolar cells
B. Type II alveolar cells
C. Type III alveolar cells
D. Type IV alveolar cells
B. Type II
The primary component of surfactant responsible for decreased alveolar surface tension is _____________.
If air flow into an alveolus is blocked, the alveoli collapses due to increased surface tension. What is the pressure inversely proportional to?
A. Surface tension
B. alveolar radius
C. Amount of CO2 present in the alvolus
B. alveolar radius