Lecture 26 - Regulation of Respiration Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Lecture 26 - Regulation of Respiration Deck (19):
1

Which of the followings is not a portion of the medullary respiratory center? A. Dorsal respiratory group B. Ventral respiratory group C. Apneustic center

C. Apneustic center. The apneustic and pneumotaxic centers are part of the "pontine respiratory center." They function to prevent lung over-expansion (apneustic) and control the rate/depth of breathing (pneumotaxic).

2

How does the pneumotaxic center control the rate/depth of breathing.

By inhibiting the ramp signal of from the DRG.

3

The ramp signal is a function of the ____ during inspiration. A. Dorsal respiratory group B. Ventral respiratory group C. Apneustic center D. Chemotaxic

A. DRG

4

Upper airway dilation during inspiration is a function of the _____. A. Dorsal respiratory group B. Ventral respiratory group C. Apneustic center D. Chemotaxic

B. Ventral respiratory group

5

This region receives signals from the vagus and glossopharyngeal nerves. A. Dorsal respiratory group B. Ventral respiratory group C. Apneustic center D. Chemotaxic

A. DRG * Carotid and aortic bodies send signals via CN IX and X to the DRG, which controls the rate/depth of breathing in light of peripheral PO2 levels.

6

Forceful inspiration will activate the ventral respiratory drive through _____. A. increased PCO2 stimulating peripheral chemoreceptors B. "spill-over" from the DRG C. Phrenic nerve stimulation by diaphragmatic relaxation

B. "spill-over" from the DRG

7

Inspiratory neurons are used to transmit signals related to controlled inspiration. What region of the VRG sets the rate/rhythm of the respiratory pattern? A. Pre-Botzinger complex B. Apneustic center C. Chemotaxic

A. Pre-Botzinger complex This is NOT the same thing as the pneumotaxic center and its control over inspiratory depth.

8

Airway stretch receptors prevent lung over-inflation by what mechanism?

Hering-Breur Reflex

9

Explain how chemoreceptors are unlike regular neurons.

Most neurons become less active with hypercapnia/hypoxia. Chemoreceptors become more active, in order to correct for the decrease in oxygen.

10

Which of the following is more sensitive to carbon dioxide/pH? A. Peripheral chemoreceptors B. Central chemoreceptors C. Carotid bodies D. Aortic arch chemoreceptors

B. Central chemoreceptors These "indirectly read" pH by allowing CO2 to cross the blood-brain barrier (BBB), thereby stimulating the respiratory rate.

11

Central chemoreceptors are located?

In the medulla

12

Which of the following is more sensitive to oxygen? A. Peripheral chemoreceptors B. Central chemoreceptors C. Carotid bodies D. Aortic arch chemoreceptors

A. Peripheral chemoreceptors

13

Low PO2 will cause the release of excitatory neurotransmitters in this cell type of peripheral chemoreceptor.

Type I (glomus) cell of the carotid body

14

Infants and exercising adults utilize these mechanoreceptors to control respiration. A. Slow adapting stretch receptors B. Fast adapting stretch receptors C. J-receptors

A. Slow adapting stretch receptors

15

These receptors over-ride normal respiratory control in the face of increased airway stretch, irritation of the airway, and foreign body airway obstruction. A. Slow adapting stretch receptors B. Fast adapting stretch receptors C. J-receptors

B. Fast adapting stretch receptors *Clinical correlation: The fast adapting receptor is important in control of respiration in foreign body airway obstruction. Without a rapid "over-riding" of normal respiration, it would be difficult to clear one's airway.

16

These receptors are responsible for terminating inspiration and prolonging expiration when exposed to increased airway stretching. A. Slow adapting stretch receptors B. Fast adapting stretch receptors C. J-receptors

A. Slow adapting stretch receptors

17

These sit at the junction of the alveoli and pulmonary capillary and are "sensors" stimulated by pulmonary edema. A. Slow adapting stretch receptors B. Fast adapting stretch receptors C. J-receptors

C. J-receptors

18

These are responsible for tachypnea and cough in the face of pulmonary edema.

C. J-receptors

19

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