Lecture 23 - gastrointestinal illness Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Lecture 23 - gastrointestinal illness Deck (11):
1

Symptoms of acute gastrointestinal illness

Vomiting, diarrhoea, fever, abdominal pain

2

Viral cause e.g norovirus, rotavirus

Nausea and vomiting
-watery dihorrhea - not bloody
-abdominal cramps
-muscle ache
-low grade fever
-headache
-generally self limiting - over 47
-can have outbreaks

3

Bacterial cause

-Colonisation of intestines and the production of toxins
-clostridium difficle
-escherichia coli
-vibrio cholerae

-Colonisation of intestines invasion of intestinal tissue (may see blood in stool)
-campylobacter jejuni
-salmonella
-escherichia coli

-toxin produced in food and ingested, no infection - food poisoning (generally short lived, symptoms cleared within 1-2 days)
-staphylococcus aureus
-clostridium perfringens

4

Protozoan

-food and water contaminated by human/animal faeces
-symptoms last 4-6 weeks
-diarrhoea, flatulence, abdominal cramps

5

Diseases in new zealand

-Campylobacter - lots of cases, a few hospitalisations but no deaths
-Salmonella - also common, not much hospitlaisation
-Listeriosis - very uncommon but can result in deaths

6

Outbreaks

When there are 2 or more cases from the same cause
-can be from animal GI tract or human GI tract or faeces
-contaminated food and water

-mainly transmitted by faecal oral route

7

Risk factors

-consume at risk products
-contact with farm animal
-consume untreated water
-contact with faecal matter
-contact with symptomatic people
-overseas travel within incubation period
-contact iwth sick animals

8

Bacteria diagnostic tests

1 stool culture - want to confirm the carrier

-grow on sheep blood agar, macconkey agar with lactose, macconkey agar with sorbitol ect.

9

Further complications

Dehydration, bacteraemia, haemolytic uremic syndrome, guillian barre syndrome, reactive arthritis

10

treatment

-Most important - replace fluid, sugar and salt
-easily digestable food
-anti-motility drugs - can be bad if the toxins and bugs are trapped

antibiotics - not usually required, may have small effect on severity and duration of symptoms, however may reduce the numbers shed
-is used for C. difficlie
-salmonella/campylobacter if patient progresses to or risks of systemic infectin

11

Prevention

sanitation, hygiene, effective cooking
-food safety regulations