Lecture 29 - Immunodeficiency Flashcards Preview

BII > Lecture 29 - Immunodeficiency > Flashcards

Flashcards in Lecture 29 - Immunodeficiency Deck (15):

What are examples of Pro inflammatory cytokines ? and what do they do?

In response to tissue damage ect.

-early, induce acute phase proteins - activates complement
-temperature, and behavioural changes (e.g more sleep) (interact w nervous system)
-TNFa triggered by bacterial LPS
-Tissue repair - bone resorption, fibroblast proliferation, collagenase synthesis, leukocyte adhesion
-T and B cell activation


Chemokines and interferons

Chemokines - aid chemotaix, direct effector cell traffic

Interferons - induce transient antiviral state, activate NK activity, upregulate HLA expression (improves cytotoxic T cell killing)


Types of CD4 T helper cells

look at diagram


why do we have more allergic reactions now?

-Microbiome and enviornemntal antigen changes - immune system may not beable to handle this as effectively

now have a much more restricted range of environmental antigens, and are exposed to these on a routinly basis
-there are also less parasites, and stil have these immune responses but dont need them as we dont have hte parasits in developing countries

-the TH2 response was for parasits, and this is also teh same for the allergic responses
-have less regulatory T cells and as a consequence of this - Th1 and th2 and th17 dont get controlled as well, and therfore get an overexpression of responses that could be pathogenic for us and end up with more allergens

-or if have too much th1 then get more autoimmunity and inflammatory reactions



when we do not develop the appropriate responses to antigens
-e.g child could get an increase in cough, runny nose, otitis media, pneumonia ect.

-some people can have deficiency with producing T cells


Congenital vs acquired immunodeficiency

Congenital - selective igA deficiencey is common, congenital deficiencies are rare

Acquired - infection, drugs, systemic disease - renal failure, malnutrition ect.


Can tell by what type of infections the person keeps getting to what type of immune response immunodeficiency they may have

Extracellular bacteria - igM, igG


Antibodies around birth

At the start - have maternal igG and then this decreases and make our own igG, and then increase in igM and igA as we get older
-can sense congenital immunodeficiences around this time


Antigen and immune response

-Some antigens have a very poor response and some have a stronger response
-when we make antibodies - these can usually enhance phagocytosis, or block antigen
-and that changes the response
-can also depend on levles of igG and igM - high levels of igM can promote B cells, weather high conc of igG tend to diminish b cells
-igM - want to make more to respond, and when have lots of igG have more memory cells so dont need to make as many


Sensing and responding

Interoceptors - allow us to monitor what is going on internally, and to change physiology to change balance

Immune system - sensory system , can sense shapes

Nervous system - way of sensing physical world

the nervous system and the immune system interact with each other


Nervous system interacting with Immune system

-have autonomic nervous system interacting with the endocrine system and immune system
-get increase body temp, slow wave sleep, promote illness behaviours
-IL-1 acts on vagus nerve branches and has neurotransmitter activity


Autonomic nerves and lymph nodes

-there are sympathetic autonomic nerves inside lymph nodes going into secondary lymphoid organs
-are in strong influence of T cells
-norepinephrine communicates with T cells


Low sociable vs high sociable animals

Low sociable animals have more sympathetic innervation of secondary lymphoid organs, and as a consequence of this - they are likely to be more treat aware of environment and will send more effects to the lymphoid organs compared to a high sociable animal
-changes the activation of helper t cells
-diff Th1 and th2 levels/ responses in the two types of sociability
-so our personality and the way we interact in the world can effect our immune system


Immune system and nervous system diagram

Infection or tissue damage - will cause immune activation
-pro inflammatory cytokines - will have effects outside the immune network
-and also the autonomic nervous system releaseing neurotransmitteres can effect the immune repsonse and can modulate the way we respond and the responses we generate


Can get an effect of immune system and nervous system e.g study of caregivers of people with alzheimers vs controls

THe contorls responed 4 times as well to the influenze vaccien then the caregivers of alzheimers disease