Flashcards in // lecture 26 Deck (17):
Celsius water boiling & freezing point
100 C and 0 C. add 273.16 for kelvin.
Fahrenheit water freezing point is
Every 5 degrees up the Celsius scale =
9 degrees up the Fahrenheit scale.
1 change in C is a
1.8 change in F.
Celsius to Fahrenheit
multiply by 2, subtract 10% of that, add 32.
Fahrenheit to Celsius
subtract 32, divide by 2, add 10%, and round up.
effective way to stay cool.
makes it feel hotter and makes it so evaporation can't cool you down as much. humidity = moisture = water vapor.
takes into account how humidity makes it feel hotter.
keeps nights warm.
higher water vapor content -> nights stay warmer.
humid heat waves ->
higher heat index during the day and warmer nights (due to GH effect). often humid heat waves are the worst.
warm nights are also key in
causing mortality in heat waves (cool nights provide relief).
dry climates tend to have a
large daily temperature range. lack of GH effect allows nights to cool there. also hotter days though since there's no evaporational cooling.
trees, lakes, etc. lead to milder daytime temperatures in non-desert climates.
urban heat island effect
buildings act like clouds to return longwave back towards surface. bigger effect at night when air is stagnant.
causes of UHI effect:
- more absorption of solar radiation by dark surfaces.
- less evaporation because of impermeable surfaces.
- shortwave absorption on sides of buildings, longwave radiation not able to escape as easily.