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1

Celsius water boiling & freezing point

100 C and 0 C. add 273.16 for kelvin.

2

Fahrenheit water freezing point is

32 F.

3

Every 5 degrees up the Celsius scale =

9 degrees up the Fahrenheit scale.

4

1 change in C is a

1.8 change in F.

5

Celsius to Fahrenheit

multiply by 2, subtract 10% of that, add 32.

6

Fahrenheit to Celsius

subtract 32, divide by 2, add 10%, and round up.

7

evaporation

effective way to stay cool.

8

humidity

makes it feel hotter and makes it so evaporation can't cool you down as much. humidity = moisture = water vapor.

9

heat index

takes into account how humidity makes it feel hotter.

10

greenhouse effect

keeps nights warm.
higher water vapor content -> nights stay warmer.

11

humid heat waves ->

higher heat index during the day and warmer nights (due to GH effect). often humid heat waves are the worst.

12

warm nights are also key in

causing mortality in heat waves (cool nights provide relief).

13

dry climates tend to have a

large daily temperature range. lack of GH effect allows nights to cool there. also hotter days though since there's no evaporational cooling.

14

evaporation from

trees, lakes, etc. lead to milder daytime temperatures in non-desert climates.

15

urban heat island effect

buildings act like clouds to return longwave back towards surface. bigger effect at night when air is stagnant.

16

causes of UHI effect:

- more absorption of solar radiation by dark surfaces.
- less evaporation because of impermeable surfaces.
- shortwave absorption on sides of buildings, longwave radiation not able to escape as easily.

17

thermometer records

strongly affected by the UHI effect are not used to calculate global temperature trends.