Lecture 26- Emotion I: Fear Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Lecture 26- Emotion I: Fear Deck (35):
1

1What was the cat experiment with removing her cerebrum?

-when whole cerebrum removed, animal extremely aggressive= sham rage

-if cerebrum removed but hypothalamus remained= docile

-means hypothalamus is an organisational centre of fear an aggression

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2

Does the emotional system in humans develop with age?

-yes -the things we fear change with age

3

What are the fears at the age of 4-6?

-kidnappers, robbers, ghosts and monsters

4

What are the fears at the age of 6?

-fears of bodily injury, death and failure develop -these may continue into early adolescence

5

What are the fears at the age of 10-11?

-fears regarding social comparison, physical appearance, personal conduct and school examinations may predominate

6

What are the consequences of the emotional system becoming dysfunctional?

-abnormal experiencing of anxiety can occur in variety of ways -this is when you are scared and shouldn't be -very common 1: Generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) 2: Panic attack 3: Panic disorder 4: Phobias 5: Obsessive compulsive disorder 6: Post-traumatic stress disorder

7

What are the normal Panic attack symptoms? (13)

1.Pounding heart 2. Chest pains 3. Light-headedness or dizziness 4.Nausea or stomach problems 5.Flushes or chills= autonomic system goes wrong, control of temperature 6. Sweating= autonomic system 7. Shortness of breath or a feeling of smothering or choking 8. Tingling or numbness= somatosensory system 9. Shaking or trembling= over-excitation of autonomic system 10. Feelings of unreality 11. Terror 12. A feeling of being out of control or going crazy 13. Fear of dying

8

What are the nervous system components that organise expression of emotional experience?

-same motor neurons and same muscles for smile but different pathway

-medial /lateral organisation

-motor control but not the primary pyramidal (the main pathway)

-here it goes via different pathway

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9

Can you activate the muscles needed for facial expressions without feeling the emotion?

-by activating the muscles can mimic the emotional pattern -but do not feel anything

10

What is voluntary facial (motor) paresis?

-there are two pathways that control muscles for smiling

a) volitional movement= the pyramidal and extrapyramidal projections from motor cortex and brainstem and

b) neural systems for emotional expression= descending extrapyramidal (not the main pathway) projections from the medial forebrain and hypothalamus

-here we have a problem in the voluntary pathway

-cannot smile properly voluntarily

-can smile normally when find something funny

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11

Where do the projections of the neural systems involved in emotional expression come from?

-medial forebrain and hypothalamus

12

What is emotional (motor) facial paresis?

-there are two pathways that control muscles for smiling

a) volitional movement= the pyramidal and extrapyramidal projections from motor cortex and brainstem and

b) neural systems for emotional expression= descending extrapyramidal (not the main pathway) projections from the medial forebrain and hypothalamus

-here we have a problem in the voluntary pathway

-can smile properly voluntarily

-cannot normally when find something funny

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13

What is the smile of emotional paresis called?

-Duchenne smile

14

What is the voluntary facial paresis smile called?

-Pyramidal smile

15

What does the existence of voluntary and emotional facial paresis tell us?

-there are two systems controlling the facial muscles involved in smiling

16

What is the so called limbic lobe?

-cingulate gyrus, associated with emotions

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17

What are the most important parts of the brain involved in emotions?

-cingulate gyrus and the amygdala

18

What is the modern concept of the limbic system?

-emotions last after the stimulus is gone

-continuous stimulation must occur

-amygdala and cingulate gyrus are the main components

-expression of emotion downstream via hypothalamus and autonomic etc.

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19

Where is the amygdala and what three subgroups is it divided into?

1.Baso-lateral group

2.Medial group

3. Central group

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20

What are the inputs and outputs of the amygdala?

-orbital and prefrontal cortex are involved in the awareness of what is happening; interpretation

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21

What is activated in the brain when making judgments of trustworthiness?

-the amygdala -amygdala is activated when you make judgments about trustworthiness -some difference in left and right -implicit= only pic, explicit= some info

22

What is the pathway in a rat brain that mediates the association of auditory and aversive somatic sensory stimuli?

-fear is plastic= can learn to fear -

auditory fear conditioning= fearful stimulus, electrical shock

-do that and get fear response

-classical conditioning= beep and shock at the same time

-then have fear just from the beep

-beep= auditory pathway

-can interrupt the pathway, do not need the auditory cortex -

need the auditory pathway 

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23

Where does the amygdala get convergent inputs from and where does it project to?

-primary reinforces (taste, touch, pain)

-neural sensory stimuli=visual, auditory stimuli related to an object)

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24

What are the outputs from the amygdala to the orbital and medial prefrontal cortex about?

-implicit motor actions -explicit conscious processing to obtain rewards, avoid punishments and implement long-term plan

25

What are the outputs from the amygdala to the hypothalamus and brainstem about?

-visceral motor effector systems to prepare body fro action

26

What are the AMPA and NMDA receptors activated by?

-glutamate

27

What is the pattern of activation of the AMPA and NMDA receptors at resting potential?

-when very weak stimulation only AMPA is activated and lets some Na+ in

-NMDA is blocked by a Magnesium ion

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28

What is the pattern of activation of the AMPA and NMDA receptors at during postsynaptic depolarisation?

-if more glutamate comes then the NMDA is unblocked and the Mg ion dissociates -NMDA lets in Ca2+ and Na+ in

-it also activates CAM kinase

-CAM kinase adds more AMPA receptors therefore the postsynaptic membrane is more conductive

-thus the response to glutamate can be stronger than before -LTP= long term potentiation

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29

What are the signaling mechanisms underlying LTP?

-NMDA lets in Ca2+ and Na+ and activates Ca2+/Calmodulin kinase II and Protein kinase C

-these two kinases phosphorylate substrate and make more AMPA receptors that are then inserted into the postsynaptic membrane and the response to glutamate is enhanced

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30

What are the two types of LTP?

1. selective, specific (homosynaptic) 2. associative (heterosynaptic)

31

What is specific LTP?

-One synapse is active and another one is not active

-only the active one is strengthened

-specific to a stimulus

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32

What is associative LTP?

-one synapse strongly stimulated

-second one weakly stimulated

-stimulated together

-both synapses strengthened and when one fires later the other is associated and will fire too (this is in the amygdala

-changes in synapses together

-if tone carried by one and the renforcing one

-must be active at the same time -can associate thing that happen at the same time)

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33

What happens when you have bilateral loss of the amygdala?

-no concept of fear -maintain all the other feelings but don't know what fear is -cannot draw it (the funny baby picture)

34

What is the neural model for the awareness of emotional feelings?

-

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35

How can you suppress fear pharmaceutically?

-via benzodiazepine

-enhances the effect of GABA at the GABA a receptor

-resulting in relaxed, sleepy individual

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