Flashcards in Lecture 20- Learning and memory Deck (27)
What are the two main types of memory?
implicit and explicit
-operate through different mechanisms
What is working memory a subdivision of?
What is explicit memory?
-memory of facts
-if short term called= working memory
-you can describe it
What is implicit memory?
-unconscious, cannot explain
-includes habituation, sensitization, classical and operant conditioning and procedural memory
--implicit, you don't think about it
-ljust access the motor program, some innate some have to learn and then becomes implicit and procedural
-tying your shoes
-opposite of the explicit memory
-you can remember via explicit memory remember how you learned it
-your name= learn, but so used often, becomes procedural memory
-repeated over and over again
-applie sin language, words you use most often, procedural! = but technically they are explicit as they are facts= overlap
What is habituation and sensitization?
= after a short period of time= you don't perceive a stimulus, no control over
sensitization= activating the fear to notice stimuli, if noxious or alarming stimulus it obliterates habituation
-critical adaptation to state of alarm
-gets rid of the habituation
-neither one is consciously activated (sensitization and habituation)
What is classical conditioning?
-salivate when the bell rings even if no food
What is operant conditioning?
behaviour comes before the conditioning stimulus
-call your dog, give a treat; then call= comes even when don't give a treat
- one of the most important ways of learning= unconcious
-we can asses it consciously
What is procedural memory?
the "how to" memory, walking, driving etc.
What does working memory do?
-Stores newly acquired information and retrieved memories
•Memory traces last seconds to minutes
-newly acquired info and newly called info
-holding for long enough to be functions
-lasts only a few seconds mostly (minutes in some situations
What does the working memory depend on?
- on prefrontal cortex
-Also lateral intraparietal cortex
What are the three subdivisions of working memory?
•Each component of working memory is distributed across a different set of brain regions
Who was Phineas Gage?
injury through prefrontal cortex, behavioural changes, became distrusting of others, his working memory impact
-thanks to that we know that prefrontal and lateral intraparietal cortex are part of memory
What is the central executive?
flexible system responsible for the control and regulation of cognitive processes. It has the following functions:
-binding information from a number of sources into coherent episodes
-coordination of the slave systems
-shifting between tasks or retrieval strategies
-selective attention and inhibition
What is the phonological loop?
remember words, repeat words, can hold 7 items, 1st in 1st out arrangement, things have to be stored and repeated otherwise it won't get out of working memory into long term memory
What is the spatiotemporal sketchpad?
-what is going in visual space, how it connect with time and contains olfactory and touch etc. everything except facts and auditory function that allow you to recognise words
What is explicit memory also called?
– subdivided into semantic and episodic memory
– Includes normal working memory
What formation is needed for explicit memory?
hippocampal formation for transfer from working to long term memory
Where is explicit memory mostly stored?
-Primarily stored in the neocortex once consolidated
-so first hippocampus= short term long term storage and then stored in the long term long term storage = neocortex
Who was HM?
--the one who had hippocami removed, couldn'tremember anything for longer than 2 mins
= proof that hippocampus is essential for memory
What is semantic memory?
-subdivision of explicit memory
-content,meaningsof words, sights, sounds, etc
What is semantic dementia?
-loss of neocortex, loses the ability to distinguish subjects, the categories of objects, but could remember the sequence of objects
What is episodic memory?
-subdivision of explicit memory
– spatial and temporal relationships between different semantic memories
– important for language
What is the transfer of information into long term memory dependent upon?
(except when something is really shocking)
What does recall into working memory do?
Recall into working memory enhances the long term memory (use it or lose it)
What does repetition cause?
Repetition alters strength of active synapses, thereby laying down an activity pattern that can be recalled (Hebb’s theory)
Why is sleep important for memory?
Frequently, sleep is required with both slow wave and rapid eye movement sleep being implicated