What are the three types of aphasia?
-receptive aphasia: inability to comprehend language -expressive aphasia: inability to generate written or spoken language -global aphasia: combines expressive and receptive aphasia
What are the signs of expressive aphasia?
-can form words but cannot say their name, can comprehend language, can only repeat very simple words (not even bread) -has normal cognitive function, is emberassed and understands the situation
What does generative language mean?
-can take aspects and generate almost infinite variety
What are the cases of aphasia evidence for?
-evidence for specific part of the brain produces language -historically significant (Paul Broca etc. )
What is language development like at 4 months?
-Babbles many speech sounds.
What is language development like at 10 months?
-Babbling reveals household’s language.
What is language development like at 12 months?
What is language development like at 24 months?
-Two-word, telegraphic speech -like in a telegram -as short as possible
What is language development like at 24+ months?
-Language develops rapidly into complete sentences -many new ones every day -layered meanings (the cup on the table is mine)
Where is Broca's area?
-on the left hemisphere (only)
-cause of expressive aphasia -about speech production, motor bit of it
What are the 4 parts of the brain involved in the process of language? (old style)
-Primary visual cortex
-Primary auditory cortex
What are the areas involved in processing the written word?
1.Striate Cortex(primary visual cortex)= early visual processing 2.Extrastriate cortex= visual word recognition, recognises it's a word 3. Inferior frontal cortex= semantic association, what does the word mean 4.Supplementary motor area and other areas near the sylvian fissure= premotor coding, patterns of muscular movements of face and pharynx are made 5.Primary motor cortex=motor control of speech 6.Speech
What are the areas involved in spoken word processing?
1.Primary auditory cortex=early auditory processing 2. Temporoparietal (angular gyrus), anterior superior temporal cortex= auditory word recognition, recognises the sound is a word 3. Inferior frontal cortex= semantic association, what does the word mean 4.Supplementary motor area and other areas near the sylvian fissure= premotor coding, patterns of muscular movements of face and pharynx are made 5.Primary motor cortex=motor control of speech 6.Speech
What is the role of the striate cortex in speech? (written)
-early visual processing
What is the role of extra-striate cortex in speech? (written)
-visual word recognition, words are recognised here
What is the role of primary auditory cortex in spoken word processing?
-early auditory processing
What is the role of tempoparietal cortex (angular gyrus) and anterior superior temporal cortex in spoken speech processing?
-auditory word recognition -recognise that that sound is a word
What is the role of inferior frontal cortex in speech?
-semantic association, what does the word mean
What is the role of supplementary motor area and other areas near the sylvian fissure in speech?
-premotor coding -patterns of muscular movements of face and pharynx are made here
What is the role of primary motor cortex in speech?
-motor control of speech
What does this picture show?
hearing words= auditory processing, superior temporal region are activated
What does this picture show?
seeing words= primary visual areas active, then ventral stream= analysing what the word means
What does this picture show?
-speaking words=motor areas, anterior of the central sulcus (so more planning of actions then action = action is in front of central sulcus)
What does this picture show?
-generating words= thinking of a words= more anterior frontal lobe
What are the characteristics of Broca's aphasia? (expressive)
-halting speech(gaps in speech) -tendency to repeat phrases or words -disordered syntax -disordered grammar -disordered structure of individual words -comprehension intact
What are the characteristics of Wernicke's aphasia? (recepetive)
-fluent speech -little spontaneous repetition -syntax adequate -grammar adequate -contrived or inappropriate words -bad comprehension -speak nonsense
What connects Broca's area and Wernicke's area?
-arcuate fasciculus -arc of fibres
What does angular gyrus do?
-associated with language meaning
What is conduction aphasia?
-may be caused by disconnecting Wernicke's and Broca's areas (the arcuate fasciculus) -intact auditory comprehension,poor speech repetition -speech is fluent but putting thoughts into words is markedly impaired.
What is alexia?
-Ability to write a passage but inability to read back the passage. Ability to recognize individual letters as a letter. (N = The Letter N, B = The Letter B) Inability to associate individual letters with a sound. (N = "enn", B = "bee”) Inability to read a word as a whole. and cannot tell the meaning of words
What is alexia caused by?
-damage to inferior temporal lobe
-e.g.lesion destroys connection from left visual cortex to language centres (left hemisphereú
How localised is language according to modern research?
--dorsal aspects of motor cortex
-lot of parietal cortex and temporal -the proportion of patients responding when Broca's activated= not many! -language is not as discretely localised!
What are the two things that are different anatomically in each hemisphere?
1. Sylvian fissure angle 2. Planum temporale size
How does the Sylvian fissure differs in the left and right hemisphere?
-the sylvian fissure is at a different angle in the left and the right hemisphere
-the temporal lobe is a little meteor in the left hemisphere
How do the planum temporales differ in the left and right hemispheres?
-planum temporale very different in the right and left hemisphere -bigger on the left ¨-this is where we'd expect the Wernicke's area to be
What are the 5 differences in functions in left and right hemispheres?
What is the neglect syndrome?
-people lose interest or ability to perceive what is happening in one half of visual field
How different are Bonobo brains from ours?
-Bonobo very similar brain to us -why is human language special? -only about a percentage DNA difference -they do not have a sophisticated language like we do -no generative language
Can chimpanzees learn a language? (experiment)
-trying to teach it to associate images with the words -thought maybe do not have a language as they cannot voice it (different larynx) -thought that they could learn to construct a sentence -some learned hundreds of characters but only could put two together like= food, outside -not a language -NO
How are the brains of primates activated when hearing a call of their species?
when looking on the brain= looks like a Wernicke's area and Broca's area
-when listening to a call from its species: get an activation pattern that looks much like what human brain when listening to speech
-section 1 we'd expect the motor areas for speech -section 2 we expect areas for interpretation of language
-almost the same as humans
What was the idea of universal grammar idea?and the competing idea
-what do we have in the brain that allows us to have language? -human languages sound different but there is fundamental grammar, innate maybe??? --capacity of language is in the brain but maybe not localised but because our brains are very good at classifying and selecting things and abstract thinking= allows for language?
What is the counterexample to the universal grammar idea?
-the Piraha= their language completely different, 8 consonants and 3 vowels -for some of their speech= abandon consonants and vowels -this language almost impenetrable -almost impossible to learn -doesn't conform to the universal language rules -so supporting the idea= language is a capacity of big brains not some specialised area
What is the phylogenetic experiment with languages?
-saying not a universal grammar that gets picked by chance but it evolves culturally cultural evolution is the primary factor that determines linguistic structure, with the current state of a linguistic system shaping and constraining future states -so how your brain interprets the cuture you are living in is the most important for language -Two word-order features plotted onto maximum clade credibility trees of the four language families.
What is the idea that migration of people should follow reduction in linguistic complexity?
-lot of variation in population in Africa= small groups migrate away and take away only small part of the variation with them -small group can have only tiny variation, likely to have small subset -we should see differences in language that have a reduction in variety if this evolution happened to the languages
Is there a correlation in how far away from Africa and the reduction in phonetic diversity?
-look at distance from Africa should see reduction in the linguistic complexity -and right! -looked at how the languages sound -as you move away from Africa reduction in complexity -so supports the idea that languages evolved due to the cultural interaction or the lack of thereof -
Did our ancestors have language?
-not sure -look at their cultures= tools, some tools are beautiful and technical, sign that cognitive abilities were advances -glue= heating, collection of waxes etc.= complex -not sure if had language -but mnit clear -forethought -homo florientis (only 50 000 yrs old) -not homo sapiens
What is the story with FOXP2?
-autosomal dominant gene in a family, those who have defect then no language -did affect language, also poor motor skills, cognitive skill -may be really important but not a language gene
Is there a difference in FOXP2 in humans and other Apes?
-yes -but may have nothing to do with language