Flashcards in Lecture 3 Deck (65)

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1

## What are the 2 major classes of statistics?

###
Descriptive

Inferential

2

## What type of statistics summarize aspects of samples or populations?

### Descriptive statistics

3

## What are all members of a group that share a common characteristic of interest?

### Population

4

## What is a subset of a population that shares the same characteristic of interest?

### Sample

5

## We do research with samples because we don't have access to what?

### Entire populations

6

## What are used to make generalizations (inferences) from samples to populations?

### Inferential Statistics

7

## Choosing a good sample affects what?

### External validity

8

## What is the ability to generalize findings outside the sample?

### External validity

9

## What type of sample adequately represents the population of interest?

### Representative sample

10

## What type of sample does not adequately reflect the population?

### Biased Sample

11

## What are the 2 major sampling strategies?

###
Probability

Non-probability

12

## Probability sampling uses what to choose a sample representative of the population to avoid bias?

### Random selection

13

## Non-probability sampling doesn't use random sampling so there is no guarantee of what?

### that is represents a larger population

14

## What are the probability sampling methods?

###
True random sampling

Stratified random sampling

Systematic random sampling

Multi-stage random sampling

15

## In true random sampling every person in the population has?

###
An equal

Independent chance of being selected

16

## In stratified random sampling we identify subgroups in the population and randomly sample from these groups to get what?

### Same proportions in sample as represented in population

17

## What type of sampling randomly selects a starting place to choose participants?

### Systematic random sampling

18

## What is used in systematic random sampling?

### Systematic rule to select particiapnts

19

## In multi-stage random sampling the final random sample is selected through what?

### Series of random selection decisions used to eliminate potential particiapnts

20

## What are the non-probability sampling methods?

###
Convenience

Purposive

Quota

Systematic (non-random)

Stratified (non-random)

Multi-stage (non-random)

21

## In convenience sampling the sample is choosen based on what?

### Convenient access

22

## In purposive sampling the sample is formed by including what?

### Available persons who meet a specific criterion, but not randomly.

23

## In quota sampling individuals of a specified group are added to the sample until when?

### Until a pre-specified number is met but not randomly

24

## In systematic (non random) sampling the same is selected how?

### Through a systematic, not random process

25

## With stratified (non random) sampling the sample is selected how?

### To have a specified ratio for each target group but not randomly

26

## In multi-stage (non-random) sampling, the final sample is selected how?

### Through a series of non random selection decisions used to eliminate groups of potential particiapnts

27

## What type of sampling is it when stratified samples are selected from designated age groups at the same point in time so the effect of age can be examined?

### Cross-sectional sampling

28

## What type of sampling is it when a single sample of participants is measured repeatedly over time so the effect of age or time can be examined?

### Longitudinal Sampling

29

## What type of sampling is it when repeated samples of the same population are measured over time so the effect of time can be examined?

### Trend Sampling

30