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1

What are the 2 major classes of statistics?

Descriptive
Inferential

2

What type of statistics summarize aspects of samples or populations?

Descriptive statistics

3

What are all members of a group that share a common characteristic of interest?

Population

4

What is a subset of a population that shares the same characteristic of interest?

Sample

5

We do research with samples because we don't have access to what?

Entire populations

6

What are used to make generalizations (inferences) from samples to populations?

Inferential Statistics

7

Choosing a good sample affects what?

External validity

8

What is the ability to generalize findings outside the sample?

External validity

9

What type of sample adequately represents the population of interest?

Representative sample

10

What type of sample does not adequately reflect the population?

Biased Sample

11

What are the 2 major sampling strategies?

Probability
Non-probability

12

Probability sampling uses what to choose a sample representative of the population to avoid bias?

Random selection

13

Non-probability sampling doesn't use random sampling so there is no guarantee of what?

that is represents a larger population

14

What are the probability sampling methods?

True random sampling
Stratified random sampling
Systematic random sampling
Multi-stage random sampling

15

In true random sampling every person in the population has?

An equal
Independent chance of being selected

16

In stratified random sampling we identify subgroups in the population and randomly sample from these groups to get what?

Same proportions in sample as represented in population

17

What type of sampling randomly selects a starting place to choose participants?

Systematic random sampling

18

What is used in systematic random sampling?

Systematic rule to select particiapnts

19

In multi-stage random sampling the final random sample is selected through what?

Series of random selection decisions used to eliminate potential particiapnts

20

What are the non-probability sampling methods?

Convenience
Purposive
Quota
Systematic (non-random)
Stratified (non-random)
Multi-stage (non-random)

21

In convenience sampling the sample is choosen based on what?

Convenient access

22

In purposive sampling the sample is formed by including what?

Available persons who meet a specific criterion, but not randomly.

23

In quota sampling individuals of a specified group are added to the sample until when?

Until a pre-specified number is met but not randomly

24

In systematic (non random) sampling the same is selected how?

Through a systematic, not random process

25

With stratified (non random) sampling the sample is selected how?

To have a specified ratio for each target group but not randomly

26

In multi-stage (non-random) sampling, the final sample is selected how?

Through a series of non random selection decisions used to eliminate groups of potential particiapnts

27

What type of sampling is it when stratified samples are selected from designated age groups at the same point in time so the effect of age can be examined?

Cross-sectional sampling

28

What type of sampling is it when a single sample of participants is measured repeatedly over time so the effect of age or time can be examined?

Longitudinal Sampling

29

What type of sampling is it when repeated samples of the same population are measured over time so the effect of time can be examined?

Trend Sampling

30

What type of sampling is a subset of the population that is repeatedly sampled over times so the effect of time can be examined among the subset?

Cohort sampling