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A _______________ is a statement usually designed to be tested by an experiment that tentatively expresses a cause-and-effect relationship between two or more events (or variables).

Hypothesis

1

A ____________ is a set of statements designed to explain a set of phenomena, while a ___________, like evolution by natural selection, explains many phenomena. When many separate pieces of evidence support these, they become widely accepted by the scientific community.

Theory & grand theory

2

A ____________ is any event or object capable of assuming several values.

Variable

3

Some of the advantages of a _____________ are that you can gain lots of information about a particular (often rare) phenomenon, while some of the disadvantages are that it is difficult to generalize to other situations and may not be reliable.

Case study

4

________________ involves watching people or other animals in their regular environment.

Naturalistic observation

5

In an experiment, a ____________ involves setting the values of one variable to see whether or not the value of another variable is affected.

Manipulation

6

The _____________ is the erroneous belief that we have explained an event by naming it.

Nominal fallacy

7

In science, you have to be VERY specific about what you are manipulating or measuring, so you should make sure that you have absolutely clear _________________________; otherwise, if two different researchers mean two different things when they use the same words, it can become a big mess.

Operational definitions

8

In an experiment, the control group does NOT get the manipulation. They are needed in order to compare to the experiment group. In one kind of control group, called the ______________ control group, participants receive a "fake" manipulation, like sugar pills in a medical experiment.

Placebo

9

Scientists want our experiments to have ______________, which is the degree to which the operational definition of a variable accurately reflects the variable it is designed to measure or manipulate.

Validity

10

_________________ is the repeatability of a measurement; the likelihood that if the measurement were made again, it would yield the same value.

Reliability

11

__________________ are also referred to as "demand characteristics" and occur when participants' expectations about how they think experimenters want them to act or feel changes their behavior or feelings

Expectancy events

12

An experiment in which the researchers knows the IV, but the participant does not, is called a ___________________ study, but when neither the participant nor the researcher knows the value of the IV, it is called a _____________________ study.

Single- blind & double blind

13

Psychological researchers subscribe to the Ethical Principles of Psychologists Code of Conduct developed by the ______________________________________________ and often follow it as a matter of state law.

American Psychological Association (APA)

14

A person's agreement to,participate in an experiment after he/she has received information about the nature of the research and any possible risks and benefits is called ______________________.

Informed consent

15

____________________ is full disclosure to research participants of the nature and purpose of a research project after its completion.

Debriefing

16

____________________ statistics are mathematical procedures for organizing collections of data.

Descriptive

17

Measures of ______________________ characterize the value of items in a sample of numbers (in psychology, these numbers represent data collected from people).

Central tendency (MCT)

18

Measures of _________________ describe the degree to which scores in a set of numbers differ from one another.

Variability

19

When one variable goes up and another variable goes up along with it, we call that a _____________ correlation.

Positive

20

When one variable goes up and another variable goes down at the same time, we call that a _____________ correlation.

Negative

21

Statistical ________________ is the likelihood that a relationship between two variables really exists and is not due to random chance.

Significance

22

_________________ statistics are mathematical procedures for determining whether relationships or differences between samples are statistically significant.

Inferential