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Some stimuli elicit a response from an animal because of innate behaviors shaped by natural selection. These kinds of stimuli are called ________________ stimuli or __________________ because they naturally elicit a behavior, with no learning needed.

Eliciting or unconditioned

1

_______________________ and ___________________were two scientists who saw themselves as following in Darwin's footsteps. They wanted to understand how the individual environment shaped neural mechanisms just as Darwin tried to understand how the ancestral environment shaped neural mechanisms.

Ivan Pavlov and Thorndike

2

__________________________ occurs when the Unconditioned Stimulus (US) is repeatedly withheld whenever the conditioned stimulus (CS) is presented, weakening the association.

Conditioned response

3

________________________________ occurs when a previously extinguished response suddenly reappears.

Spontaneous recovery

4

___________________ is the relation between two events that occur close together in time.

Temporal contiguity

5

In Classical Conditioning, the US must be closely paired with the NS. The CS can come before the US/UR, which is called ___________________ conditioning, or the CS can come after the US/UR, which is called ___________________ conditioning.

Forwards and backwards

6

There are a lot of possible manipulations of events that can occur before a reinforcer, but we have focused on two; response requirements and temporal requirements. Response requirements are manipulated by ___________________ schedules, while time requirements are manipulated by ___________________ schedules.

Ratio and interval

7

A salesperson who makes a 10% commission for every sale they make is on a ___________________ ratio schedule of reinforcement, while giving it to your kid whining for a toy sometimes after just a minute and sometimes after several days puts them on a ___________________interval schedule of reinforcement.

Fixed and variable

8

___________________ is the decrease in responding to a stimulus after that stimulus is repeatedly presented without an important consequence.

Habituation

9

A ___________________ stimulus evokes escape and withdrawal responses that interfere with the behavior that produced it.

Punishing

10

A neuron sends a signal to another neuron by releasing a chemical called a ___________________, which binds to special sites on the cellular membrane of the second neuron.

Neurotransmitter

11

The two primary types of glutamate receptors involved in long term potentiation are the ___________________ receptor and the ___________________ receptor.

AMDA and NMDA

12

___________________ refers to the process of long lasting improvement in performing perceptual (visual, auditory, tactile, olfactory, or taste) tasks as a function of experience.

Perceptual learning

13

___________________ learning is the facilitation of learning after the stimuli that guide behavior have been experienced, but without the behavior being reinforced with in their presence.

Latent

14

___________________ is the guidance of behavior by discriminative stimuli, especially verbal stimuli such as directions and is also known as rule-governed behavior.

Instructional control

15

___________________ learning involves changes in behavior of an observer after seeing another learner behave in the same situation. It usually occurs without special training.

Observational

16

___________________ is observational learning in which the behavior of an observer is similar to the behavior of the one being observed. Children with some developmental disabilities sometimes do not show much of this kind of behavior.

Imitation