Flashcards in Lecture 3 Deck (33):
Which planets have rings?
Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, Neptune
How are rings formed?
Tidal forces of a planet stretch objects that come in too close and break them apart
What is the Roche-Limit of a moon?
The point at which the moon will break apart in tidal forces
What is energy?
The ability of an object to do work, a scalar
What is work?
Force acting over a distance (Work = F*d)
What is power?
Energy / unit time
What is the equation for Kinetic Energy?
How is energy stored?
It is stored as potential energy whenever a force moves a particle through a field that the particle interacts with.
What is the equation for potential energy?
When does a cloud in space have more gravitational potential energy?
When it is very spread out.
In what kind of system is energy conserved?
In an isolated system
What does Noether's theorem state?
The laws of physics do not change over time (time invariance)
When is a spring more massive?
After you compress it because of the energy you put in
What kind of energy is light?
What factor determines the intensity of light?
The amplitude of the photon
What factor determines the color of light?
The energy of the photon
What does a diffraction grating do?
Produces the same effect as a prism (e.g. on the bottom of a CD)
WHat are the four ways in which matter can react?
Transmission, absorption, emission, and reflection
What kinds of objects transmit light?
What kinds of objects Emit light?
What kinds of objects absorb light?
What kinds of objects reflect light?
What is a wave?
A disturbance / oscillation that travels through spacetime with no mass transfer but some energy transfer.
What is unique about cherenkov radiation?
That particles move faster in water than light does in water.
What is millimeter astronomy?
Astronomy based on lights of wavelengths of 1 to 3 millimeters
What is submillimeter astronomy?
Astronomy based on lights of wavelengths less than a millimeter long.
How can we predict what objects are composed of using light?
Light interacts in different ways with different objects. Thus by recording the light that comes through / bounces off an object, we can predict the substances that caused the light to do that.
What kind of charges produce an electric field?
What kind of charges produce a magnetic field?
What do Maxwell's equations describe?
The properties and interactions of electric and magnetic fields.
What was the effect of Young's double-slit experiment?
Observed the wave-particle duality
On what does the photoelectric effect depend?
On frequency ALONE