Lecture 3: Connective Tissue Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Lecture 3: Connective Tissue Deck (38):
1

Overview

-widely distributed in the body
-cells are not stacked tightly, they are spaced well apart
-supporting tissue composed of cells embedded within a matrix that varies in consistency from fluid to crystals
-cells are responsible for synthesis and maintenance of the extracellular fluid
examples: cartilage, bone, ligaments, blood, and adipose tissue

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connective tissue subtypes: 3 types

structural, defensive, and sequestering

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structural connective tissue

fibroblast, cartilage, bone

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defensive connective tissue

macrophages, lymphocytes

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sequestering connective tissue

adipose tissue, red blood cells

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fibroblasts

most common connective tissue within vertebrate bodies
flat, irregular, branching cells
secretes structurally strong proteins into matrix between cells; most commonly COLLAGEN
-fibroblasts also secrete elastin

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Elastin

fibrous tissue that is the principal component of the lungs

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Areolar (loose) Connective Tissue (ACT)

-found throughout the body wherever protective cushioning and flexibility are needed
-ie. blood vessels are surrounded by a sheath of ACT; permits the vessels to move and yet protects them
-also present beneath the skin, attaching it to underlying muscles

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Dense Regular CT

present in tendons, connecting muscle to bone, and in ligaments, connecting bone to bone

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Dense Irregular CT

present in dermis (living part) of the skin
-arranged in thick mat
-tanned to make leather, also present in arterial walls

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Cartilage: 3 types

firmer and flexible tissue that does not stretch, yet not as hard as bone
-laid down along lines of stress; cells=chondrocytes
-3 types: hyaline, elastic, and fibrocartilage

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hyaline cartilage

-glass-like covering of bones within joints
-forms a smooth surface that reduces friction so one bone easily glides over another
-found at ends of long bones

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elastic cartilage

mixture of cartilage substances and elastic fibers
-found in external ear

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fibrocartilage

cartilage and collagen
-interverteral discs are made of fibrocartilage

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Bone

special form of cartilage where the collagen fibers are coated with a calcium phosphate salt
-bone forming cells are osteoblasts and osteoid tissue, that calcify to form bone

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harvesian canals

channels surrounded by lamellae, which contain blood vessels and nerve cells

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lamellae

bone laid down in concentric layer

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spongy or cancellous bone

lines the medullary cavity

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compact bone

surrounds the spongy bone and collagen fibers are laid down in a pattern far denser than the interior framework

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Blood

connective tissue consisting of microscopically visible elements: erythrocytes, leukocytes, and platelets/thrombocytes, all suspended in intercellular fluid called plasma
plasma>erythrocytes>leukocytes

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plasma

complex fluid in which blood cells and thrombocytes circulate
-93% water, 7% solutes, including proteins, inorganic solutes, nonprotein oranic substances (glucose, glycerol, and fatty acids)
-hormones, enzymes, vitamins, and pigments
-cell waste products (urea, uric acid)
-amino acids

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serum

supernatant yellow fluid that is expressed out when blood coagulates
-serum is used for prevention and treatment of diseases because it contains the *antibody fraction* of the blood

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Blood cell types

red blood cells/erythrocytes, white blood cells/leukoccytes, and platelets/thrombocytes

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RBC

transport gases
-flat discs with a central depression
-contain pigment called hemoglobin, which associates and dissociates with O2 and CO2

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WBC, 2 types

granular leukocytes (granulocytes), and Agranular leukocytes (agranulocytes)
-both are the defense against invading bacteria and other foreign substances

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Granulocytes: 3 subtypes

neutrophils, eosinophils, and basophils

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Neutrophils

first line of defense against bacteria
-very motile phagocytic

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eosinophil

detoxification of foreign proteins and substances
-less motile phagocytic
-found in lungs mammary glands, and small intestine

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Basophil

-inflammatory response
-cytoplasmic granules contain heparin (anticoagulant) and histamine (vasodilator) outside blood

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Agranulocytes: 2 types

-monocytes and lymphocytes

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Monocytes

-largest leukocytes
-precursor of macrophage; defend against microorganisms and chemicals

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lymphocytes

B-lymph=antibody-user
T-lymph=celllular immune response

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Adipose tissue aka fat

forms when connective tissue cells take up fat for storage as inclusions within the cytoplasm of cells
-most fat of animal body is white in color, may be yellow due to presence of carotene in feed

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brown fat

-present in hibernating and young animals
-generates heat to protect young mammals and awakening hibernating mammals from extreme cold

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Smooth muscle:

involuntary, visceral, and unstriated
-spindle shaped cells that contain one centrally located nucleus per cell
-found in the walls of digestive tract, blood vessels, urinary and reporductive organs
-contract more slowly than striated muscles and respond to a variety of stimuli

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Striated muscle

voluntary, skeletal
-long fibres: striations, many peripherally located nuclei; posses cell membrane=sarcolemma
-each striated muscle has its own nerve supply: all or none law
-striated muscle tissue + some connective tissue makes up the flesh of meat producing animals

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Cardiac muscle

-involuntary, striated
-modified muscle cells called Purkinje's fibres conduct impulse within the heat
-intercalated discs increase the speed of electrical transmission between muscle fibres

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Nerve cells consist of

dendrites, conducting impulses towards cell body
-nerve cell body
-nucleus
-axons, conducting impulses away from cell body