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Flashcards in Blood and Circulatory System Deck (74):
1

blood function overview

-circulates to maintain relative constant environment for all cells
1.carries nutrients and oxygen to tissues 2. carries carbon dioxide from tissues to lungs 3. carries waste products from tissues to kidneys for excretion 4. carries hormones 5. temperature control by transporting heat from deeper structures to surface of body 6. water balance 7. buffers like bicarbonate maintain constant pH 8. clotting prevents excess blood loss from injury 9. contains factors for defense against disease

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formed elements of blood

rbc, wbc, blood platelets
rbc and platelets lack nuclei

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Red blood cells/erythrocytes

biconcave discs, the shape allows for large surface area for oxygen exchange
presence of hemoglobin within the RBC allows transport of oxygen and red colour

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Hemoglobin

organic compound made of 4 red porphyrin pigments called memes, each containing an atom of iron and globin, which consists of 4 amino acid chains (hemoglobin=Hb)

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iron metabolism

iron is lost through feces, urine, and sweat, as well as during fetus development, nursing, and menstruation

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methemoglobin

true oxidation product of Hb that is unable to transport oxygen because the iron is in the ferric state, not ferrous

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methemogloniemia

nitrites and chlorates with methemoglobin cause nitrate poisoning from fertilizer and chlorate poisoning from weed killers in cattle

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carboxyhemoglobin

stable compound formed when carbon monoxide, present in exhaust fumes, combines with Hb
-affinity for Hb for CO is 210 times greater than its affinity for O2
Carboxyhemoglobin is unable to carry oxygen and the individual dies of suffocation

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cyanide poisoning

produces suffication by interfering with the utilization of oxygen by tissues
-has NO effect on oxygen carrying ability of blood
-may occur when cattle each stunted or frosted grain sorfhums

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methylene blue

used to treat cyanide poisoning by forming methemoglobin in blood, reacting with cyanide to form cyanmethemoglobin, an inactive compound that is slowly degraded and detoxified by body

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RBC formation

in adults it occurs in bone marrow, also producing granular leukocytes
in fetus the liver, spleen, and lymph nodes produce RBC
destruction of RBC occurs after 3 to 4 months in circulation
RBC disintegrates, releasing Hb into blood and broken cell debris is removed from circulation by macrophages

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Fate of Hemoglobin

Hemoglobin is converted bilirubin and then further to urobulin, which gives urine it's yellow colour

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Jaundice or Icterus

when bilirubin accumulates in blood it results in a condition in liver and intestines, causing a mucous membrane that makes mouth and eyes appear yellow
caused by liver damage, occlusion of bile ducts, or by destructive blood diseases

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Hemolysis

breakdown of RBC so Hb escapes into the plasma
caused by bacterial toxins, snake vemons, blood parasites, hypotonic solutions, and many chemicals
-the resulting Hb in plasma gives it a reddish colour, a condition known as hemoglobinemia
Hb excreted in urine is known as hemoglobinurea

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hemaglutination

clumping of RBC, usually when cells of one species are transffered to another, or when given the wrong blood type to humans or horses

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Normal values of blood pressure

systolic: 90-120, dystolic: 60-80

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Anemia

results if either the number of functional RBC or the quantity of Hb is decreased far below normal levels; leads to heart failure
1. may be caused by deficient blood formation from poor nutrition and deficiency of iron, copper, and vitamins
2. loss of blood due to hemorrhage from wounds or because of parasites such as stomach worms or lice
3.deficient secretion of intrinsic factor from stomach necessary for vitamin B absorption
4. hemolysis or immature RBC

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Platelets/thrombocytes

fragments of megakaryocytes: larges cells formed in bone marrow
surrounded by plasma membrane and contain microtubules, lysosomes, mitochondria, and golgi vesicles, but not nuclei
important for blood clotting and reducing blood loss

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platelet/thrombocytes process

adhering to vessel walls and each other at site of injury, they form a plug that occlludes the opening
also release serotonin that cause local constriction of injured vessels

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Leukocytes/WBC

nucleated and capable of independent movement
subtypes: Granulocytes and Agranulocytes
-gran. last hours, monocytes months, and lymphocytes years
non-functional in blood stream and are transported to tissues when needed

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granulocytes

contain granules within cytoplasm that stain with wrights stain
subtypes: neutrophils, eosinophils, basophils; formed in red bone marrow

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eosinophils (acidophils)

stained red with acid dye eosin
increase in number during CHRONIC infection
amoeboid and phagocytic
function: detoxify foreign proteins introduced via lungs, GI tract, or toxins made by bacteria and parasites
-number increase in allergic reactions

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basophils

stained with methylene blue, contains heparin preventing clotting
contain histamine, badykinin and serotonin
-are also the mast cells present in conn. tissue

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neutrophils

-stained diff, neither red nor blue
-first defense against infection by migrating to bacteria, pass through blood wall and engulf and destroy bacteria
-while destroying bacteria, neutrophils also degrade dead tissue in area, resulting in PUS
-localized accumulation of pus is called an ABSCESS
-increase of neutrophils present during infection

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tissue injury, neutrophils, and phagocytosis

autolysis of gran. leads to lysosomal enzymes that act on surrounding tissue, releasing chems that attract neutrophils
injured tissue=release histamine=inflammation
histamine increases blood flow, causes redness and inflammation
dilation of capillaries: more proteins and fluid leak out, more fibrinogen leaks out, coagulation quicker and barrier against spread of infection quicker

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Neutrophilia

inflamed tissue release leukopoietic factor, acts on marrow, releasing more neutrophils and increases rate of granulocyte formation
increased number of neutrophils is neutrophilia, and occurs during bac. infection, cancer, metabolic poisoning, hemorrhage, and exercise

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Agranulocytes

few granules,
subtypes include monocytes and lymphocytes

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monocytes

largest WBC
-phagocytic and used for less acute infections, ie. tuberculosis
-when monocytes from from blood enter tissues, they develop into large phagocytes called MACROPHAGES

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lymphocytes

variable in size and appearance; large nucleus surrounded by small cytoplasm
function: to respond to antigens (foreign substances) by forming ANTIBODIES that circulate blood or in development of cellular immunity

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hematopoeisis

formation of blood cells, divided into three lineages:
erythroid: RBC, lymphopoeisis, for lymphocytes, developed to T-cells from thymus or B cells from Bone marrow
and Myelocytes, which develop into granuloctyes, megakaryocytes (platelets), and macrophages/monocytes
all originate as haematopoietic stem cells in bone marrow

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Plasma

-fluid portion of blood
-bathes aall cells of body and protects them from external influences
-made up of 82% water and balance 8% other substances
-kidneys are responsible for maintaining constant portions of water and other substances, which include proteins, glucose, lipids, amino acids, hormones, sodium chloride, inorganic mineral salts, urea, uric acid, and creatinine

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Plasma Proteins: Globulins

alpha and beta globulins synthd in liver, gamma by lymphocytes; most antibodies therefore are gamma
fibrinogen is a beta globulin synthed in liver and is important for clotting in platelets

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Plasma Proteins: albumin

abundant protein in blood
produced by liver and important for binding and transport of many substances in blood
-responsible for 80% of total osmotic pressure of the plasma

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functions of plasma proteins

carriers: many p. proteins solubilize substances like hormones and iron to be carried
immunity functions: ie gamma globulin
buffering functions: plasma proteins help to prevent great changes in pH of blood like other blood buffers such as bicarbonates, sulfates, and phosphates
Maintenance of osmotic pressure

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lymph

fluid of lymphatic system, which brings bacteria to lymph nodes for destruction
-derived from interstitial fluid, and changes as blood exchanges substances with interstitial fluid

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Circulatory system

consists of heart and system of vessels for circulation
vessel carrying blood away from heart are arteries
vessels carrying to heart are veins
vessels carrying lymph or tissue fluid are lymphatics

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Heart

coneshaped hollow muscular structure
-base is attached to other thoracic structures by large arteries, veins, and pericardial sac
-consists of three layers: epicardium, moycardium, and endocardium

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atriums and ventricles

atriums receive blood from veins, ventricles send blood to arteries; betweeen them is the atrioventicular valve
left AV valve: bicuspid valve
right AV: tricuspid

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chordae tendinae

valves are attached to ventricular wall by means of these fibrous cords

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other valves:

aortic semilunar valve: btw ventricle and aorta
pulmoarysemilunar valve: btw ventricle and pulmonary artery

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first branches of aorta go to...

the heart, through the right and left coronary arteries

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coronary thrombosis

aka heart attack, refers to a clot in coronary artery or one of its branches, causing lack of oxygen and nutrients to heart and severe tissue damage
-most blood returns to right atrium from coronary veins, some empties directly into the chamber through heart wall

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thoracic aorta and its branches

bronchials, esophagus, lymph glands and abdomin

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brachiocephalic trunk

supplies right arm, head, and neck and is the first branch of the aortic arch, separates into the subcalvian and and carotid arteries

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abdominal aorta

largest artery in abdominal cavity and is direct continuation of descending artery

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portal circulation

arrangement in which a vessel breaks up into capillaries and then recombines again to form another vessel is known as a portal system

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hopothalmo-hypophyseal portal circulation

releases hormones

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renal portal circulation

in birds, reptiles, and amphibians, part of the blood returning from the hind limbs enters the kidneys to form the real portal system

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hepatic portal circulation

blood brained from the stomach, spleen, intestines, and pancreas is filtered through the liver by hepatic portal system before re-entering the general circulation
-allows liver to modify ad store nutrients for future use and to detoxify any harmful substances that may otherwise be absorbed in digestive tract

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Fetal circulation

1.Umbilical VEIN brings pureblood from the placenta to the liver and heart, the latter via the DUCTUS VENOSUS
2. FORAMEN OVALE allows blood to mix between left and atrium/auricle, so both ventricles can pump blood to body
3. DUCTUS ARTERIOUSUS allows blood from right ventricle to bypass the lungs and also supply the body
4.UMBILICAL ARTERIES allow blood to return to the placenta to be oxygenated

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lymphatic system

includes both lymphoid tissue of body and lymphatic vessels associated with lymphoid tissue
functions: drains tissue fluid into blood system
-forms antibodies and acts as a defense mechanism against noxious materials by filtering them out of the tissue fluid and phagocytizing them
-lymphoid tissue consists of accumulation of lymphocytes trapped in spaces between fibers of conn. tissue or intestines

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lymph nodes

lymphoid tissue may be scattered in some organs, or accumulated as nodes or to form special organs like tonsils , thymus, and spleen
nodes are glands that act as filters for lymph

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lymphatic vessels and lacteals

vessels carry lymph through one way channel and drain into the posterior vena cava
lacteals are a special group of lymph vessels that drain into the instestinal wall, which absorb lipids from the intestines in the form of Chyle

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lymphocytes (regarding lymph and cancer)

are plasma cells, and the source of antibodies
-cancer and infections may spread through lymph channels
-when tumors are removed, it is best to remove all the lymph nodes draining the cancerous area

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spleen

lymphatic gland, stores blood
-part of macrophage system
-phagocytizes fragile, worn out RBC

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cardiac cycle

sequence of events that occur during one complete cycle

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diastole

relaxation of the chamber of heart just prior to and during filling

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systole

contraction of a chamber of the heart in process of emptying

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heart sounds

lub=closure of AV valves at time of contraction of muscle fibers of ventricles; it is louder, lower pitch, and longer than second sound
dub=produced by vibrations of vessel walls, blood columns, and closed semilunar valves

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conducting system of heart: SA node

sino-atrial node is the origin of the heart beat, and thus called the pacemaker
impulses spread through the atria causing them to contract in atrial systole

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heart block

any interruption of the SA node impulse pathway

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control of the heart rate is done by

parasympathetic nervous system

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atrioventricular node

av node set off by sa node, causes ventricles to contract

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blood quantity and weight

40L in cows, 5-6L in humans, 7% of total weight

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blood pressure

pressure blood exerts against the vessel walls

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systollic pressure

produced by contraction of the ventricles of the heart

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diastolic pressure

pressure exerted by the elastic walls of the arteries while the ventricles relax

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pulse

wave of SYSTOLIC pressure, starting at heart and throughout the arterial network

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shock

when effective volume of blood is insufficient to supply needed nutrition to body tissues and to remove waste
lack of blood may be due to hemorrhage, dilation of viscera vessels, loss of fluid in tissue, failure of blood to return to heart, or failure of heart to pump
anaphylactic shock=causes vasocontriction and closing of throat

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factors contributing to arterial blood pressure: peripheral resistance

caused by ARTERIOLAR TONE, due to sympathetic constrictor activity, and VISCOSITY of BLOOD due to packed cell volume

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Systolic electrocardiogram

P= spread of electrical activity to SA node
QRS= spread of electrical activity from AV node to ventricles; aka depolarization or "Lub"
T= repolarization of ventricles or "Dub"

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arterial pressure: cardiac output

STROKE VOLUME due to amount of blood returning to heart and HEART rate, conducted by vagus tone
-both controlled by sympathetic activity

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Blood coagulation factors

-fibrinogen
-prothrombin
-thromboplastin
-Christmas Factor
-fibrin stabilizing factor

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clot-preventing factor

Heparin