Lecture 3- Eyes and Ears Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Lecture 3- Eyes and Ears Deck (52):
1

what causes decreased color vision?

Decreased function of rods and cones

2

What causes decreased light and adaptation to light?

Decreased pupillary size and reflex

3

WHat happens to the cornea as you age?

Loss of endothelial integrity
Posterior surface pigmentation

4

What happens to the lens?

Increased size and density leading to cataracts

5

What leads to presbyopia?

lens sclerosis

6

How are tear secretion affected with age?

Decreased tearing (especially postmenopausal women)
Decreased lacrimal gland function
Decreased goblet cell (mucous) secretion

7

What direction do elderly have difficulty gazing ?

Upward and maintaing convergence

8

Optic neuropathy characterized by increased intraocular pressure (>21 mmHg) and destruction of retinal ganglion cells

Glaucoma

9

Type of glaucoma with Filtration angle remains open, but drainage of aqueous humor is impaired

open-angle

10

signs and symptoms of open angle glaucoma

Gradual loss of peripheral vision. Advances to tunnel vision
Fundoscopic changes, increased cup to disc ratio

11

type of glaucoma where Filtration angle narrows, blocking drainage of aqueous humor

Closed-angle glaucoma

12

Signs and symptoms of closed angle glaucoma

Blurred vision, halos around objects
Painful, red eye
Nonreactive pupil in mid-dilation
Cloudy cornea

13

Clouding and thickening of the lens resulting in visual impairment

Senile cataracts

14

Signs and symptoms of cataracts

Temporary shift toward nearsightedness
Decreased visual acuity, increased glare
Yellow-brown pigmentation
Absent red reflex

15

What causes the nearsightedness with cataracts

Nearsightedness is caused by increased refraction by lens. Known as index myopia.

16

Chronic eye disease that causes loss of central field of vision. Majority cause of vision loss in the elderly.

Age related macular degeneration

17

Type of MD caused by degeneration of retinal pigment epithelium preventing nutrient flow to macula. More benign clinical course and prognosis. Will have drusen

Dry Macular Degeneration

18

Exudative form of MD caused by neovascularization of choroidal capillaries, leaking blood and protein below the macula. More acute loss of vision

Wet macular degeneration

19

Walls of retinal vessels thicken
Vasospasms occur, causing focal narrowing

Hypertensive retinopathy

20

HTN retinopathy signs and symptoms

Copper wiring
AV nicking
Hemorrhages
Papilledema

21

Inward folding of eyelid, usually lower one
Eyelashes rub against and irritate cornea

Entropion

22

Outward turning of eyelid, usually lower one, with eyelid moving away from globe
Can lead to corneal exposure, tearing, keratinization of palpebral conjunctiva, and vision loss

Ectropion

23

Drooping upper eyelid with eye in primary gaze due to anatomical changes of levator palpebrae superioris
Signs and symptoms

Blepharoptosis

24

test for glaucoma (open vs. closed angle)

Gonioscopy

25


Measures intraocular pressure

Tonometry

26

Detects defects in central vision

Amsler Grid

27

An umbrella term used to include the psychological and physical challenges that visual impairment presents to the aging individual.
Highly correlated w/ depression and other comorbidities

Age-Related Psychoopthalmology (APO)

28

How can you treat glaucoma?

Surgical excision of a peripheral piece of iris
Laser iridectomy
Miotics
Beta-blockers
Carbonic anhydrase inhibitors

29

How do you treat macular degeneration?

Verteporfin photodynamic therapy (med eliminiated the extra blood vessels in the eye)
Vascular endothelial growth factor antagonism (stop the promotion of angiogenesis)

30

How do you treat diabetic retinopathy

Blood-glucose control
Blood pressure control
Laser photocoagulation

31

What is more common, dry or wet Macular degeneration?

Dry MD

32

Which progresses faster- dry or wet macular degeneration.

Wet MD

33

Why may you not get a good fundiscopic exam with closed angle glaucoma?

Cloudy cornea

34

3 main parts of the auditory system

Peripheral auditory system
Brainstem
Cortical areas

35

occurs when there is a problem conducting sound waves anywhere along the route through the outer ear, tympanic membrane (eardrum), or middle ear (ossicles).

Conductive hearing loss

36

type of hearing loss in which the root cause lies in the vestibulocochlear nerve (cranial nerve VIII), the inner ear, or central processing centers of the brain. Mainly caused by abnormalities in the hair cells of the organ of Corti in the cochlea

Sensorineural loss

37

what type hearing loss will you mainly see around age 65?

Sensorineural loss

38

3 main factors that enhance hearing loss

Previous middle-ear disease
Vascular disease
Exposure to noise

39

When does hearing loss start?

3rd decade of life

40

whispered voice test can detect hearing loss above what?

30 decibels

41

perception of a ringing, buzzing, hissing, or roaring sound in one or both ears.

tinnitus

42

what causes tinnitus ?

caused by damage to the tiny hairs on auditory cells within the inner ear.

43

Underlying conditions that may cause tinnitus

Removing impacted earwax
Treating a blood vessel condition
Changing medication (ex. aspirin)
Cochlear implant

44

What drugs can help with tinnitus

Tricyclic antidepressants, such as amitriptyline and nortriptyline
Alprazolam (Niravam, Xanax).

45

Symptoms of cerumen impaction

Diminished hearing (usually progressive as cerumen builds up)
Feeling of blocked/plugged ear
± Ear pain
± Tinnitus

46

Calcification of the tympanic membrane that results in stiffening of the drumhead

TYMPANOSCLEROSIS

47

what may a clicking sound heard as tinnitus indicate

nerve of muscular abnormality

48

Abnormal bone growth in middle ear causes fixation of the ossicular chain. almost exclusively in whites
association with pregnancy

OTOSCLEROSIS

49

Focal disorder of bone metabolism that occurs in the aging skeleton
characterized by an accelerated rate of bone remodeling, resulting in overgrowth of bone at a single or multiple sites and impaired integrity of affected bone
can lead to conduction and sensorineural loss if it affects the cochlea (similar to otosclerosis)

Paget Disease

50

Acquired cause of hearing loss producing cochlear damage (sensorineural loss)

ototoxic medication

51

What condition may have Reddish-blue TM (Schwartze’s sign) and nonmobile tympanic membrane.

otosclerosis

52

Hearing loss without any organic etiology
Usually related to psychological factors

PSEUDOHYPACUSIS