Lecture 3: Innate Immunity Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Lecture 3: Innate Immunity Deck (31)
1

Function of innate immunity is contained primarily in leukocytes of __________ lineage

myeloid

2

What lymphoid cells also have innate function?

NK cells

3

Are macrophages long or short lived?

Long

4

How do macrophages and neutrophils counter threats?

1) Phagocytosis
2) Mediator production (cytokines, hydrolases, ROS)

5

Why is inflammation, the result of the innate response, so dangerous if uncontrolled?

It is the result of non-specific innate activity so toxic granules affect host tissue too

6

What happens to the vasculature at sites of inflammation?

Increased vascular permeability

7

What are the 4 hallmarks of inflammation?

1) Rubor (redness)
2) Dolor (pain)
3) Calor (heat)
4) Tumor (swelling)

8

How is the inflammatory response initiated?

PAMPs or DAMPs are recognized by neutrophils, etc which bind to them and express proinflammatory cytokines

9

What are the 4 classes of pathogen recognition receptors?

1) Toll-like
2) NOD
3) C-type lectin
4) Rig-I-like (recognize viral RNA)

10

What are one big set of cells that distinguish the innate immune system from the adaptive one?

Phagocytes

11

What are 2 types of phagocytes?

1) Macrophages
2) Neutrophils

12

What is usually the first cell to encounter a pathogen?

Macrophages

13

What is Opsonization?

coating of particles by molecules that enhance recognition by phagocytes (ex: adaptive immunity opsonizes pathogens with antibodies)

14

The innate immune system opsonizes pathogens with proteins of the _________ _____

complement system

15

Upon activation by a stimulus, phagocytes (particular macrophages) produce ________, _______, and _________

cytokines, chemokines, prostaglandins

16

What are PRRs?

PAMP Recognition Receptors

17

Where are PRRs highly expressed?

macrophages and dendritic cells

18

What receptors are included under the PRR umbrella?

1) TLRs (Toll like)
2) NOD-like (NLRs)
3) RIG-I helicase-like receptors
4) C-type lectin receptors

19

Define inflammation

the term for accumulation of fluid, plasma proteins, and WBCs that occurs in tissues subjected to injury

20

True or false: the inflammation response is fundamentally protective

True (intended to destroy offending agent)

21

Name the 3 key events of the inflammatory response:

1) Alteration in blood flow (vasodilation for increased flow to move more WBCs)
2) Increased vascular permeability (endothelial cells contract to lead to widened intracellular junctions)
3) Infiltration of WBCs to the affected area

22

Early inflammatory lesion is marked by _______. Later, _______ predominate

neutrophils; macrophages

23

Typical PAMPS include ________ containing structures

mannose

24

Through which transcription factor is pro-inflammatory activation mediated?

NF-kB

25

What type of cells are the gateway to the adaptive response?

DCs

26

True or False: DCs display multiple PRRs and can phagocytize pathogens

true

27

DC cells work in particular with what other innate cells?

NKs and yd lymphocytes

28

What type of cells are NK cells?

lymphocytes

29

What makes up primary lymphoid tissue?

bone marrow and thymus

30

What makes up secondary lymphoid tissue?

lymph nodes, spleen

31

Where do DCs deliver antigen to?

lymph nodes or spleen