Flashcards in Lecture 3: Innate Immunity Deck (31)
Function of innate immunity is contained primarily in leukocytes of __________ lineage
What lymphoid cells also have innate function?
Are macrophages long or short lived?
How do macrophages and neutrophils counter threats?
2) Mediator production (cytokines, hydrolases, ROS)
Why is inflammation, the result of the innate response, so dangerous if uncontrolled?
It is the result of non-specific innate activity so toxic granules affect host tissue too
What happens to the vasculature at sites of inflammation?
Increased vascular permeability
What are the 4 hallmarks of inflammation?
1) Rubor (redness)
2) Dolor (pain)
3) Calor (heat)
4) Tumor (swelling)
How is the inflammatory response initiated?
PAMPs or DAMPs are recognized by neutrophils, etc which bind to them and express proinflammatory cytokines
What are the 4 classes of pathogen recognition receptors?
3) C-type lectin
4) Rig-I-like (recognize viral RNA)
What are one big set of cells that distinguish the innate immune system from the adaptive one?
What are 2 types of phagocytes?
What is usually the first cell to encounter a pathogen?
What is Opsonization?
coating of particles by molecules that enhance recognition by phagocytes (ex: adaptive immunity opsonizes pathogens with antibodies)
The innate immune system opsonizes pathogens with proteins of the _________ _____
Upon activation by a stimulus, phagocytes (particular macrophages) produce ________, _______, and _________
cytokines, chemokines, prostaglandins
What are PRRs?
PAMP Recognition Receptors
Where are PRRs highly expressed?
macrophages and dendritic cells
What receptors are included under the PRR umbrella?
1) TLRs (Toll like)
2) NOD-like (NLRs)
3) RIG-I helicase-like receptors
4) C-type lectin receptors
the term for accumulation of fluid, plasma proteins, and WBCs that occurs in tissues subjected to injury
True or false: the inflammation response is fundamentally protective
True (intended to destroy offending agent)
Name the 3 key events of the inflammatory response:
1) Alteration in blood flow (vasodilation for increased flow to move more WBCs)
2) Increased vascular permeability (endothelial cells contract to lead to widened intracellular junctions)
3) Infiltration of WBCs to the affected area
Early inflammatory lesion is marked by _______. Later, _______ predominate
Typical PAMPS include ________ containing structures
Through which transcription factor is pro-inflammatory activation mediated?
What type of cells are the gateway to the adaptive response?
True or False: DCs display multiple PRRs and can phagocytize pathogens
DC cells work in particular with what other innate cells?
NKs and yd lymphocytes
What type of cells are NK cells?
What makes up primary lymphoid tissue?
bone marrow and thymus