What is the most important component of the work-up for LAD?
History and Physical
An enlarged LN in which location is always considered not normal?
A LN of which size is considrered "enlarged?"
Firm and rubbery lymph nodes should make you think what?
What are 3 indications for biopsying a LN?
- If watchful waiting is the plan, but the nodes never get better
- If plan included Abx, but 4-6 wks after treatment the nodes are no smaller (or if they are bigger)
- Right away if an enlarged supraclacvicular node palpated along w/ findings consistent w/ malignancy i.e., B-symptoms
What is a complications which may arise in the eye associated with Cat Scratch Disease?
In regards to tumor-like lesions, what does Heterotopic refer to?
Microscopically normal cells or tissues that are present in abnormal locations i.e., pancreatic tissue in wall of stomach
In regards to tumor-like lesions, what does Hamartoma refer to?
Excessive, focal overgrowth of cells and tissues native to the organ in which it occurs; benign histology
What are the most common tumors of infancy; where are they most commonly seen?
- Hemangiomas: either cavernous or capillary
- Most commonly in the skin: if large/flat = port wine stain
Differentiate fibromatosis from fibrosarcoma?
- Fibromatosis = sparsely cellular proliferation of spindle-shaped cells
- Fibrosarcoma = richly cellular lesions
What is the most common location for Teratomas?
List the 5 sites most frequnt sites of origin for the childhood cancer
- Hematopoietic system
- Nervous tissue
- Soft tissues
Which malignancy in children younger than age 15 accounts for more deaths than all other malignant tumors combined?
What is the most common extracranial solid tumor of childhood?
In children <2 y/o, what is the usual presentation of Neuroblastoma?
- Fever + large abdominal mass + possible weight loss
- In infants, disseminated dz may present w/ multiple cutaneous metastases causing a blue color aka "blueberry muffin baby."
What do Neuroblastomas produce which can be an important diagnostic feature?
Catecholamines; ↑ urine VMA and HVA
The peak incidence of Wilms tumor is btw what ages?
2-5 y/o; with 95% occurring before age 10
The risk of Wilms tumor is increases with what 3 recognizable groups of congenital malformations?
- WAGR syndrome: Wilms tumor + Aniridia + Genital anomalies + Retardation
- Denys-Drash syndrome: gonadal dysgenesis + early-onset nephropathy
- Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome: macroglossia + hemihypertrophy + omphalocele
What are some of the potential presenting findings/sx's of Wilms tumors?
- A large abdominal mass
- Pain in the abdomen after some traumatic accident
- Intestinal obstruction
- Pulmonary metastases after onset of dx