Flashcards in Lecture 3 - Memory 2: Rehearsal Deck (16):
At what ages do children rehearse the most (i.e verbal rehearsal to remember a password)?
What are the percentages of children using rehearsal at different ages, according to Flavell, Beach and Chinsky (1966)?
10% in 5 year-olds
60% of 7 year-olds
85% of 10 year-olds
How did Guttentag (1984) measure the processing effort of rehearsal?
Used finger tapping rates when not rehearsing and compared them with rates when rehearsing.
What did Guttentag's (1984) results show about rehearsal and processing effort?
- 7 and 8 year-olds slowed their tapping more than 11 year-olds, showing that rehearsal is harder for younger children.
- Older children remember more than younger children for a given decrease in tapping rate. This suggests an increased efficiency of older children's rehearsal.
What do we use when we rehearse sub-vocally?
The phonological loop
What is the relationship between age and item-capacity on the phonological loop?
The older you are, the greater the item capacity.
What is the relationship between age and articulation rate?
The older you are, the quicker you can articulate.
What is the relationship between articulation rate and item-capacity of phonological loop?
The quicker the articulation rate, the greater the item capacity.
What did Hitch et al (1989) find about articulation rate and rehearsal, and what was different about his study?
Hitch used pictures instead of words, to be remembered. Adults spontaneously decoded these into phonological formats, and so word length effects, articulation rate and phonological interference effects can be observed.
Only 10 year olds showed correlations between articulation rate and number of items remembered, possibly because they also decoded the pictures phonologically.
What did Chi (1978) investigate?
The effect of content knowledge on memory. Compared 10 year old chess experts with adult novices on their ability to recreate a chess board.
What did Chi (1978) find?
The 10 year old chess experts repositioned more pieces correctly than the adult novices, and also took less trials to do it.
What did Chi (1978) conclude about content knowledge?
Content knowledge can be more important than capacity/overall, general knowledge.
What are the limitations of Chi's (1978) study?
Did not compare with adult experts. May be that the child chess experts were higher on IQ, because they play chess, or play chess because they have IQs (self-selecting sample). Therefore the differences between groups would be due to that and not due to the differences in content knowledge.
What did Schneider et al (1993) test?
Replicated Chi's (1978) experiment, by comparing performance at repositioning chess boards when they are mid-game, random positions and non-chess geometric patterns.
What did Schneider et al (1993) add to Chi's (1978) work?
Enforced Chi's (1978) findings by confirming it is some sort of familiarity with the expert topic (chess) which enables enhanced performance. Differences are not due to increased IQ, etc - otherwise the expert group would have been better for all 3 conditions.