Flashcards in Lecture 8 - Number Cognition Deck (10):

1

## What is cardinality?

### The number of objects/size of a set. e.g. 4 cats and 4 dogs share the same cardinality.

2

## What is ordinality?

### A relational property between sets of different cardinal values. Whether one set is larger/smaller than another in the number of items in the set.

3

## What are arithmetic differences?

### Precise ways of moving between numbers of different cardinalities.

4

## What did Piaget show about infants' understanding of number?

### Piaget's conservation task - Counting alone doesn't guarantee an understanding of number

5

## What did Starkey, Spelke and Gelman (1990) find about whether infants could habituate to the cardinality of number?

### 6-9 month-old infants were able to habituate to sets of 3 objects, and then dis-habituate upon seeing sets of 2 objects. All other properties of number were varied in each set, in order to know that the habituation was to the cardinality and nothing else.

6

## Which 3 methods can be used to investigate infants' understanding of number?

###
- Habituation tasks

- Violation of expectation

- Choice decision-making

7

## What do all 3 methods into infants' number cognition tell us?

### Infants are sensitive to cardinality, but only up to 4 items. Sums, and habituation cannot be completed if there are more than 4 items.

8

## Describe the sensitivity of infants to sets of numbers larger than 4/5.

###
At 6 months old, the ratio between two different sets of number needs to be 1:2 to be recognised as different.

At 9 months old, the ratio between sets needs to be around 2:3 for infants to dishabituate.

Required ratios are for infants to approximate differences between the sets.

9

## What did Agrillo, Dadda and Bisazza (2007) find about the number cognition of mosquito fish?

### Mosquito fish have a similar number cognition to infants, in that they can distinguish between groups of different sizes if the numbers in the two groups are low enough (below 4/5) or the difference between them is large enough (2:1 ratio).

10