Flashcards in Lecture 33 Deck (19):
What are the two main parts of ATP Synthase?
F0-integral (transmembrane) protein part
F1-knobby parts that sticks into the mitochondrial Matrix
What the the two parts of the ATP synthase Functionally?
-comprised of c subunits (10 to 14 of them),E subunit, and Y subunit
-all of these subunits rotate together when protons move one at a time form the P side to the N side
-comprised of a subunit, b2 subunits, S subunit, hexameter of a a B subunits
-entire complex is fixed in the membrane and cannot rotate with the rotor
How does ATP synthase Work?
Binding Change Mechanism
-The c subunit complex rotates in the membrane as H+ move from the P to the N side of the inner membrane
-the y subunit of the rotor rotates with the c subunits and the y subunits stick into the center of the hexameter complex made up of the a-B pairs
-The y subunit is asymmetric and as it rotates pas a B subnit of each a-b pair, it induces a change in the B conformation
-depending on the position of the Y subunit, the B subunit is sequentially in open, loose and tight conformations
Dissociate ATP and allow association of ADP and Pi
ADP and Pi bound and react
What are some issues concerning transport of metabolites through the mitochondrion
-none of the molecules ADP, Pi, or ATP are freely diffusing through the inner membrane, so there needs to be a way to get ADP and Pi into the matrix and ATP out
-2 NADH molecules are made in the cytoplasm from each glucose during glycolysis; NADH is not able to freely diffuse through the membrane, so there needs to be some way to get them into the matrix
What are the two transporters that can fix the issue of getting ADP and Pi into the matrix and ATP out?
Adenine Nucleotide transporter
Adenine nucleotide transporter
an antimport translocate that moves ADP3- into the matrix and ATP 4- out of the matrix
Pi and H+ are moved together
-doesn't change the amount of charge, but does change pH
How do we move NADH into the matrix?
In the liver, heart, and Kidney a system called MALATE aspartate shuttle is used
-two antiports are involved
What are the two key reactions of the Malate aspartate shuttle
oxidation of malate to oxaloacetate in matrix
reduction of oxaloacetate to malate in the cytoplasm
What is the result of the Malate aspartate shuttle?
the movement of one NADH equivalent from the cytoplasm into the matrix
Glycerol Phosphate Shuttle
-second system for getting reducing equivalents into the matrix
-NADH (from glycolysis) is oxidized by dihydroxyacetone phosphate to produce glycerol 3-phosphate in inter-membrane space
-Glycerol 3-phosphate on the inner membrane is oxidized and produces FADH2
-FADH2 in the membrane is oxidized to produce QH2 in the membrane
-QH2 feeds complex III
What are the two dangers in the condition hypoxia
1)respiration cannot occur because of low pO2 and cells suffer ATP deficiency
2)Without high enough O2 in complex III, there is a accumulation of free radicals
-QH-; reacts with O2 to create a reactive oxygen species O2- which is extremely damaging to proteins and nucleic acids
Reactive Oxygen species
O2 and OH (with dots in front of first letter)