Lecture 4: emotional development and attachment Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Lecture 4: emotional development and attachment Deck (15)
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Still face reaction

If you look at an infant and have completely neutral expression they become distressed, can’t cope with lack of any emotion or communication.


Social referencing

-from 1yr
-actively seek emotional information from others
-look to others to gage their emotional reaction and so how they should react


Self-conscious emotions

-Higher order set of feelings
-need adult to input about 'when'
-18 months: shame, embarrassment
-3yrs envy, guilt, pride


Emotional self regulation

-strategies to adjust own emotional state
• 4 months – babies can shift their attention
• 1 years – toddlers can crawl or walk towards or away from stimuli
• 2 years – language allows expression of feelings


Early childhood

Talking about emotional states increases
o More reflective comments made
Empathy becomes more common
o May or may not lead to sympathy/prosocial behaviour
Self regulation of emotion
o Impact of Caregivers
o Temperament


Middle childhood

• Integration of social expectations into emotions
• Increased cognitive understanding
o Experiencing two emotions simultaneously
o Facial expression may not match emotion felt
• Emotional self regulation
o Coping strategies vary across situations
♣ In Control – problem-solving/seek help
♣ No Control – distraction/redefine situation
• Perspective taking
o Same event can be interpreted with different emotions
o Imagining how someone else feels



=individual difference in emotional reaction, activity level, attention and emotional self-regulation


Thomas and Chess (1977)

• Study of infants
• 9 dimensions of behaviour discovered (eg hyperactivity, attention)
• Dimensions tend to cluster together
• Clusters form 3 general types of temperament:

1. Easy (40%)
• Cheerful, adaptive, quick to establish routines
2. Difficult (10%)
• Negative, slow learner, irregular reactions to routines
• High risk for anxiety and aggression in later childhood
3. Slow to warm up (15%)
• Negative, adjusts slowly, mild reactions to stimuli
• Tend to be slow and fearful in later childhood
*Unclassified (35%)
• unique combinations of the nine characteristics


Attachment Theory

=strong ties with others that are rewarding in a variety of circumstances


Bowlby's Ethological Theory

=evolved response that promotes survival
-built in behaviours to keep parent near by
• Implications for feelings of security and ability to establish trusting relationships
o Inner representation of attachment figure forms an internal working model for future relationships


4 Stages of Bowlby's Ethological Theory

1. Preattachment (birth to 6 weeks) – built in signals promote closeness with caregiver
2. ‘Attachment in the making’ (6 weeks to 6-8 months) – respond differently to stranger
3. ‘Clear cut’ attachment (6-8 months to 18-24 months) -separation anxiety
4. Reciprocal relationship (18-24 months onwards) – anxiety reduces, understand factors influencing parents’ presence & can influence this (e.g., language)


Measuring Attachment
-Ainsworth's 'Strange Situation'

-looks at reaction to reunion with caregiver
o Secure (~65%)– parent as base, upset when separated, seek contact on reunion
o Avoidant(~20%) – unresponsive to parent, not upset when separated, avoid parent on reunion
o Resistant(~10/15%) – clingy, upset on separation, difficult to comfort on reunion
o Disorganised(~5/10%) – confused contradictory behaviours on reunion


Cultural variation

• German infants more avoidant attachment than American Infants
-possible cultural differences in how much babies are encouraged to be non-clingy and independent
• Infants of the Dogon people of Mali show almost no avoidant attachment


Attachment opportunity

•Observations of institutionalized infants:

*Spitz (1945, 1946)
• One nurse looking after 7 babies
• Babies became depressed – emotional difficulties
• Attachment prevented – no bond formed

*Tizard & Rees (1975)
• More caregivers per child
• But high staff turnover so attachment prevented
• Children adopted after 4 years of age
• Secure attachment possible even at 4-6 years
• But, emotional/social problems more likely


4 qualities of caregiving

-secure attachment
-avoidant attachment
-resistance attachment
-disorganised attachment