Lecture 5: Social and Moral Development Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Lecture 5: Social and Moral Development Deck (14)
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1

Self concept
-how you think about yourself

• develops during early childhood
• initially predominantly ‘concrete’, with basic descriptions of emotions/attitudes: eg ‘I can run really fast’ if asked what’s good about themselves, asked to describe themselves eg ‘I’m a cheerful person’ they focus on basic things they can do or simple descriptions or how they are
• refined in middle childhood with use of personality traits to describe self
• later adolescence, becomes more complex. Understand that me-self dependent on context

2

Influences of self esteem

Age
• high in early childhood
• young children high self-esteem, over-estimate their abilities
• drops during first years of school

social comparison: reality of mixing with others
• more ‘realistic’ in middle childhood
• generally stable, and high, for majority from 8 years

Culture
• gender differences: about achieving, the individual, then self-esteem will be high, community more about the culture, collective, modestly highly valued, then self-esteem might look like have lower self-estem however to do to with how tests have been devloped
• japan cf America (generally nation about themselves, Japan-idea of modesty, sharing achievements value far more)
Child-rearing practices
• nurturing/loving environment better chance of having good self-esteem

3

Influences of self esteem

Age
• high in early childhood
• young children high self-esteem, over-estimate their abilities
• drops during first years of school

social comparison: reality of mixing with others
• more ‘realistic’ in middle childhood
• generally stable, and high, for majority from 8 years

Culture
• gender differences: about achieving, the individual, then self-esteem will be high, community more about the culture, collective, modestly highly valued, then self-esteem might look like have lower self-estem however to do to with how tests have been devloped
• japan cf America (generally nation about themselves, Japan-idea of modesty, sharing achievements value far more)
Child-rearing practices
• nurturing/loving environment better chance of having good self-esteem

4

Influences of identity development

-personality
-family
-peers, friends, school

5

Gender Identity

Early childhood
• By age 2 can label self and others as male/female
• 3 prefer gender-stereotypical toys
• 4 develop rigid stereotypes eg occupation
Middle childhood
• knowledge of stereotypes increases
• can consider conflicting social information and therefore can display gender-stereotype flexibility

6

Development of gender identity: Social Learning Theory

-behaviour comes first, then self-perception
-evidence that parents do treat children differently depending on gender
-engage in behaviour from looking at others, the more you engage in a behaviour that was likely to be reinforced if it conformed to stereotypes, that came first then that’s how you start to label yourself

7

Development of gender identity: Cognitive-Developmental Theory

-self-perception comes first
-Kohlberg: Development of Gender Constancy linked to cognitive maturity
-cognitive understanding, ability to cognitively process the idea of gender and what it meant and then to label yourself

8

Moral development
-3 components

1. Emotional: empathy for distress, guilt if cause of distress
2. Cognitive: developing social cognition enables decision-making re moral dilemmas
3. Behavioural: behaviour may not necessarily follow on from emotions/thoughts

9

Theories of moral development: Psychoanalytic perspective

• Morality appears between 3&6 yrs
• Children jealous of same-sex parent, but fear loss of relationship so compensate by identifying with same sex parent-super-ego
• Current psychoanalytic research emphasises attachment (still focusing on emotion)

10

Theories of moral development: Social Learning Theory

• Develops through modelling then reinforcement
• Internalisation of social norms important, but cannot explain all moral behaviour
-Eg where society and ethical principles conflict
-Child more active in constructing morality

11

Theories of moral development: Piaget

Two stages
1. Heteronomous Morality (5-10 years)
-rules given by authority figures
-rules are immutable and must be obeyed
-focus on consequences of behaviour rather than the intentions eg experiment with kid carrying try vs taking cookie


2. Autonomous Morality (from 10 years)
-rules are socially constructed and flexible
-base judgements on intentions

12

Evaluation of Piaget's theory of moral development

• Children can take intentions into account at a younger age if intentions are made more obvious
• Young children do question adult authority in certain contexts
• Many children show heteronomous and autonomous reasoning
• Kohlberg extended and refined Piagets theory from 10 yrs to adulthood

13

Theories of moral development: Kohlberg

• Presented ‘moral dilemmas’ to 10 yrs to adults
• ‘Heinz’ dilemma
• looked at how participants justified their decisions-not about decision you come to, its about how you justified the decision that you came to
• categorised into 6 stages
• believed stages were universal and invariant

14

Influences on moral reasoning

• personality: flexibility to improve moral reasoning
• children-rearing processing: caring/supportive, discuss moral concerns openly
• Schooling-moral dev improves in late adolescence if remain in education
• Cultural variation-emphasis on individualism vs collectivism