Lecture 4 'Interuptions' Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Lecture 4 'Interuptions' Deck (28):

What is prospective memory and its four types?

remembering to perform an act in the future ("remembering to remember")

1. Time based... 'at 2pm'
2. Event based... 'when the doctor arrives'
3. Habitually based... 'after cleaning, check filter'
4. Resumption from interruption... 'what was i doing?'


Pilots forgetting to set flaps for take off and a surgeon forgetting to remove forceps from a patient are both what type of examples?

naturalistic examples of failed prospective memory


According to Einstein and McDaniel (1990), what do interruptions create?

prospective memory tasks


According to Einstein and McDaniel in Dismukes (2012), what are the two processes of the multiprocess view of related to prospective memory?

> Bottom up = An automatic process reflexively restores intentions to consciousness (probability of retrieval depends on task and cognitive state)

> Top down = Individuals may unconsciously/consciously be able to maintain a preparatory state


According to Altmann & Trafton's (2003) activation-based account (memory for goals), activation of a memory item depends on what?

the frequency of use and associations with context

(activation of original task is maintained during an interruption)


(Q. 76) What is the relationship between (1) the phenomenon of interruptions and distractions and (2)
theories of prospective memory?

Theories of prospective memory propose factors that may influence the effectiveness of
memory for intentions and memory for the status of an interrupted tas


(Q. 77) According to reviews such as Grundgeiger and Sanderson (2009) and Hopkinson and Jennings
(2012) what is the evidence to date on a relationship between interruptions in healthcare and the
presence of clinical error?

Associations have been demonstrated between interruptions and error but few if any causal relationships


(Q. 78) What was the main finding of the Westbrook et al. (2010) study on interruptions in healthcare?

Each successive interruption was associated with a 12% increase in the likelihood of procedural failures and clinical errors.


(Q. 79) What type of experiment was the stimulator study performed by Trbovich et al. (2010) on interventions that might reduce interruptions in healthcare contexts?

It was a pre-post quasi experiment


(Q. 80) What four interventions were tested by Trbovich et al. (2010) in their simulator study
of distractions and interruptions in healthcare?

Verification booths
Visual timers
Motion sensor lamp


What are the three predictions made by Altmann and Trafton (2003) about the availability of goals to memory at resumption?

1. The longer the interruption, the more disruptive
2. If a goal is rehearsed (during interruption lag or interruption) its activation increases
3. Environmental cues prime memory for the goal


What four factors influence the disruptiveness of interruptions?

*Include HOW each factor influences disruptiveness: HARD BONUS QUESTION*

1. length of interruption
- {longer resumption lag}

2. opportunity for rehearsal
- {interruption lag used to encode in memory the goal they should do on resumption}

3. environmental cue or reminder on resumption
- {needs to be strong to work}

4. interruptions can speed up original task performance
- {steps immediately after the resumption lag can be faster than average due to perceptual speed up}


According to sanderson, interruption-handling was affected by what four influences?

1 > stage of interruption
2 > strategies available to handle demands
3 > properties of situation
4 > individual differences


In healthcare context:

What is the most common source of interruptions?

Who is most at risk for making errors?

Who is the focus placed on?

Doctors may ____/____/_____ interrupted task.

Literature has dubbed this a _________ problem.

What is the most common source of interruptions?

Who is most at risk for making errors?

Who is the focus placed on?
>INTERRUPTEE (not interupter)

Doctors may
>HURRY / DELAY / NOT RESUME interrupted task.

Literature considers this a


Flynn et al (1999) found that interrupted pharmacists made what kind of errors?

more medication/dosage errors


In Prakash, Trbovich (2015) pre-post quasi lab study on the effects of four interventions on interruption and distraction management, what were the results?

> Better performance after intervention
1- less likely to engage with interruption or multitask
2- fewer interruptions happened
3- fewer failures to detect errors
4- fewer errors committed


According to a study by Liu, et al (2009) what was the difference between anesthetists who engaged in distractions/interruptions compared to those who multi-tasked, deferred or blocked them?

The two who engaged in distractions/interruptions were the only ones who made errors (forgot to check blood)


According to the distraction/interruption-management strategy, how does engaging compare to deferring or blocking on the likelihood of recognizing an safety critical event?

Engaging = more likely to miss safety critical event

Defer/Block = more likely to notice safety critical event


HMD with near-focus may promote "_______" of attention to forward field of view; and promote perceptual and cognitive "______" of peripheral events




Loft (2015)'s submarine situation awareness experiment had participants interrupted for 20 seconds while completing an essay writing task. What was the study design, its measures and findings?

> Within-subjects (2 interruption/none x2 low/high load)

> SPAM and NASA-TLX measures

> Interrupted results:
- slower reaction in contact engagement task
- lower accuracy in heading change task
- slower reaction in low/high task load conditions


In Loft's (2015) submarine distraction/interruption experiment, answers on the measure of situation awareness SPAM, were less ______ and became ________ with interruptions

less accurate


Foroughi et al (2014) had participants interrupted every 3mins during the preparatory phase or the execution phase or not at all in a 12min essay writing task. What were the findings?

Essay quality judged by independent raters

> QUALITY = worse in both interrupted conditions compared to control
> QUANTITY of words = less in interrupted execution (but not planning)

*Best work in no-interruptions


Foroughi et al (2014)'s follow up experiment interrupted participants at random intervals (vs not at all) during the preparatory/execution phase of an essay writing task. What were the findings and author's explanation?

> QUALITY = worse in both interruption conditions compared to control
> QUANTITY of words = less in interrupted execution (but not planning)

> Potential reason = interruptions cause disruptions in train of thought > leads to reduced amount of words > leads to lower-quality essay


By interrupting participants completing a reading comprehension task with math tasks, Foroughi (2015) found that participants in which interruption conditions did better in a reading comprehension test

Participants' word recognition was not affected by interruptions (whereas, comprehension was)

- interruptions did NOT cause a disruption in memory for goals in this case


True or False: A causal relationship between interruptions and "errors" has been proven.

FALSE! We only have associations


Can interruptions be a good thing for the interrupted person?



Introducing a new policy in healthcare that prohibits clinicians from being interrupted will likely have unintended consequences



Interruptions impose a kind of _________ and disrupt what?

prospective memory task
disrupt memory for goals