Flashcards in Lecture 6 'Visual Displays' Deck (26):
Overall _____ of control arrangement is more important than individual locations.
What are the four types of compatibility?
1. Conceptual compatibility
2. Stimulus-response compatibility / Display-control compatibility / Movement compatibility
3. Modality compatibility
A sign of a knife and fork can be described as a ____________ mapping; an arrow sign can be described as an _________ mapping; whereas a question mark sign is considered _________.
arbitrary (based on cultural connotations)
What are the limitations of a conceptually compatible display with items grouped according to function?
Functional grouping may not reveal cause-effect relationships and may not support sequential tasks of different kinds
What is the definition of conceptual and location compatibility according to McCormick and Sanders?
Degree to which codes and symbols correspond to the conceptual associations people have (e.g. signs and warnings)
In a hospital bed-side drawer study, a divider was placed to improve conceptual and location compatibility. How did this influence restocking time?
With the divider = faster restocking time compared to without the divider
Describe what happened in the shooting down of Iran Air flight 655 in 1988?
The USS Vincennes (missile cruiser) were engaged in a gun battle with Iranian gun boats
They got contact with IR655 but thought it was descending on them; they received no IFF response so mis-interpreted it as an unfriendly - and shot it down
What problems with the Aegis tracking system did Barry and Charles (1992) highlight as a major factor in the Iran Air 655 shoot down?
> control room = "a windowless video arcade"
> difficult for operators to assess changes in altitude/acceleration at a glance
> easy to interpret an incoming target as descending and accelerating rather than ascending at s steady speed
What does the TADMUS program stand for?
Tactical decision making under stress
(Q. 22) What is a key reason for the success of the TADMUS program?
There was good integration of effort between human-centered researchers and the operational Navy community throughout the program.
The ___________ _________ _______ (___) design process was used to develop the TADMUS program
Decision Support System (DSS)
What were the four components of the Decision Support System design process?
> Theoretical review
> Naturalistic decision making approach
> Cognitive Task Analysis and Critical Decision methodology studies of "track" identification
> Iterative process of design and testing with end users
According to Cohen, Freeman & Thompson (1997), the Decision Support System was designed to provide a __________ organisation of information about a particular target; it also used colour coding for _________ vs. __________ cues. This led to increased accessibility of relevant information and reduced reliance on human ___________ and __________ processing
supporting vs. conflicting
(Q 23.) What is the most important factor that prevented the recommendations of TADMUS from being
put fully into effect?
?? The cost of retraining operators to use the new displays and decision support systems
What three things was the Decision Support System (DSS) designed to support?
> Evaluation of display elements to support Feature Matching
> Story generation (explanation-based reasoning)
> Recognition-Primed Decision making
Morrison (1997;2000) evaluated the Decision Support System with 8 USN tactical decision making teams using a within-subjects design; how did the DSS compare?
> Increased hit rate by 44%; reduced false alarm by 21%
> Earlier detection
> More early defensive action
> Less vocal clarification needed
What are the reasons for success of the TADMUS program?
1. Large sustained effort with good funding
2. Effective technical advisory board
3. Work communicated broadly
4. Human-centred, not tehcnology
5. Integration of research + operations
What two things does the Ecological Interface Design do?
1. Represent underlying constraints of the work domain after an abstraction hierarchy analysis of constraints
2. Support SKILL, RULE, and KNOWLEDGE based behaviour
(Q. 24) Analysts and designers determine that a display should be able to support skill-based, rule-based,
and knowledge-based behaviour by the user. This is a description of which visual display design
principle at work?
Ecological interface design.
(Q. 44) How is analytic geometry used in ecological interface design?
It provides a graphical way of showing constraints between VARIABLES and showing MEANS-ENDS
What are some advantages of Ecological Interface Design?
> Faster diagnosis of unanticipated events
> Better understanding process dynamics
> Fewer control actions
> Less variable re-capture of system after disturbance
> Greater flexibility
> More accurate diagnoses the more p's reason in abstraction-decomposition space
What four display design principles does the RAPTOR use?
1. Ecological Interface Design
2. Direct Perception (directly SEE without thinking)
3. Direct Manipulation (interact ON naturally)
4. Visual Momentum (perceptually linked sequences)
What does RAPTOR stand for?
Representation Aiding Portrayal of Tactical Operations Resoruces
(Q. 17) “A measure of the user’s ability to extract and integrate information across displays.” This is a
description of which of the following?
Direct Perception (SEE state of system without cognitive processing)
The RAPTOR captures levels of ______ and levels of _______.