Lecture 4 - Memory 3: Encoding and Trainability Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Lecture 4 - Memory 3: Encoding and Trainability Deck (13):

Memory is _____ and therefore is very dependent on ______.

Memory is constructive and therefore is very dependent on content knowledge.


'Gist is a double edged sword'. Why?

It is very efficient and compresses lots of information down.
Reconstruction on the basis of gist requires many assumptions to be made, as specific details are lost in the compression.


Younger children are much less able to use ______ memory, and therefore their memory is _____

Less prone to biases and false assumptions


What does the competence of an eye witness rely on?


- ability to distinguish between fantasy and reality
- monitoring internal consistency (remembering what you have already said, etc)
- resisting suggestibility and leading questions


When you form a memory, how many types of information are encoded, and what are they?

2 - verbatim and gist-based.


What is verbatim information?

Information about any and every feature of an event.


What are gist-based representations?

Condensed information for an event, which centralises around salient and important features.


Which form of memory encoding is more efficient?



why might we want to use brain training on our working memory?

- Self-improvement
- Increased understanding
- Working memory is linked to many other domains, such as maths and English.


What features are necessary for a good test of training?

- Pre and post testing
- Transfer --> near and far transfer.
- Sustained, long term improvement.


What did Klingberg et al., (2010) find about trainability?

Positive evidence for training effects in working memory, including transfer to inhibition.


What did Melby-Lurvag & Hulme (2013) find about trainability?

Meta-analysis of mixed overall evidence suggested you only get a little more than short-term near transfer from brain training.


What did owen et al, (2010) find about tranability?

No evidence of brain training effects in adults, on a range of executive tasks, including working memory and inhibition.