Lecture 4 - Pathophysiology of Diabetes & Obesity Flashcards Preview

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1

**Diabetes prevalence has been rising more rapidly_________

Middle/lower countires

2

The increase in ____ and the overall ____ of the
population are two key factors driving the diabetes
epidemic

obesity/aging

3

Diabetes is a major cause of ____

blindness and kidney failure

4

Having diabetes can _____ the risk of death
compared with that in non-diabetics of a similar age

double

5

Prevalence of Overweight and Obesity in Children

Briefly describe which countries they are high in?

- Middle East
-

6

First recognized by Egyptians in 1500 BC as a disease associated with “the passage of much ____”

urine

7

In 1776 Dobson (Britain) firstly confirmed the presence of excess ___in urine and blood as a cause of their sweetness

sugar

8

Today diabetes is known as a metabolic disorder resulting in ________ affecting multi-organ systems

hyperglycemia

9

Diabetes is a group of metabolic diseases
characterized by hyperglycemia resulting from
defects in:
- ___
- ___

Insulin secretion
Insulin senstivity

10

Two types of types of diabetes?

mellutis and insipidus

11

Insulin Dependent DM (IDDM)

A chronic condition where pancreas produces little or no insulin

Type I
Can't be cured

12

Non-insulin Dependent DM (NIDDM)

Type II

A chronic condition that affects the way the body processes blood sugar

13

Gestational Diabetes (GDM)

A form of high blood sugar affecting pregnant women

Diagnoses in the 2-3 trimester of pregnacy

14

Diabetes Insipidus (DI)

A disorder of salt and water metabolism marked by intense thirst and heavy urination

"Drinker's diabetes"
Very rare

Hypothalamus disorder caused by lack of ADH

15

What is the hormone affected in Diabetes Insipidus (DI)

ADH

16

Functions of pancreas (2)

1. Produce the enzymes that break down foods in the intestines (exocrine)
2. Make hormones that regulate blood sugar levels (endocrine)

17

Two cell types of the pancreas

- Exocrine
- Endocrine (Islets of langerhans alpha and beta)

18

Endocrine cells of the pancreas?

Alpha - glucagon
Beta - Insulin

19

What is insulin?

A _____hormone made by the pancreas that allows the body to use ____ from carbohydrates in ingested food for energy or to store ___ for future use

protein/glucose/glycogen

20

Helps keeps blood sugar level from
getting too high (AKA _____) or too
low (AKA______)

hyperglycemia/hyoglycemia

21

Insulin function:
Liver

↓ glyconeolysis
↓ gluconeogenesis
↓ ketogenesis
↑ glycogen synthesis
↑ fatty acid synthesis

22

Insulin function:
Adipose Tissue

↓ lipolysis
↑ glycerol formation
↑ fatty acid formation
↑ glucose uptake

23

Insulin function:
Muscle

↓ protein catabolism
↑ amino acid oxidation
↑ amino acid uptake
↑ glucose uptake
↑ protein synthesis
↑ glycogen synthesis

24

Glucose homeostasis is maintained
by the highly coordinated interaction
of three physiologic processes:
___, ___, ___

1. Insulin secretion
2. Tissue glucose uptake
3. Hepatic glucose production

25

When metabolic disorders due to diabetes continue for many years, _____tissue is affected the most

vascular

26

β-cell destruction, usually
leading to absolute insulin
_____

deficiency

27

Type I diabetes is usually
_____ mediated or idiopathic and onset usually occurs at a
_______

immune/young age

28

Type I diabetes treatment

Insulin

29

Percentage of type I and type II

Type I = 5%
Type 2 = 95%

30

Type 2
Insulin _____ with relative insulin ______

resistance/deficiency

31

Polyuria

Lots of urine

32

Polydyspsia

Lots of thirst

33

Polyphagia

Increased hunger

34

English formula for BMI

(703) x (Weight in lbs) ? (Height in inches)^2

35

Metric formula for BMI

(Weight in kg) / (Height in meters)^2

36

Adipose Tissue:
BAT vs. WAT

BAT - brown adipose tissues. Helps with thermoregulation
(More in infants than in adults)

WAT - white adipose tissue this is the most common one
(More in adults)

37

BAT

Used for thermoregulation and is high in mitochondria and vasculature

(More in infants)

38

WAT

Everywhere else like visceral and is in adults

39

What is DKA?

Diabetic Ketoacidosis its when you break down fat because you cannot sense glucose

Would happen if person doesnt take insulin correctly)

40

Leptin is secreted by what?

White adipose tissue

41

Leptin does what?

Makes you feel ful

42

Underweight BMI

<18.5 kg/m^2

43

Normal weight BMI

18.5 - 24.9 kg/m^2

44

Overweight BMI

25 - 29.9 kg/m^2

45

Obesity class I BMI

30 - 34.9 kg/m^2

46

Obesity class II BMI

35 - 39.9 kg/m^2

47

Complications of Diabetes
(4)

1. Cardio-vasculature system
2. Kidneys (renal disease)
3. Nerves (loss of feeling)
4. Eyes (blindness)

48

Complications of Diabetes:
Macrovascular vs. Microvascular

Macrovascular:
Brain
Heart
Extremities

Microvascular:
Eyes
Kidney
Nerves

49

Diabetes mellitus in latin means roughly

Diabetes - water going through
Mellitus - sweet

Sweet urine

50

Diabetes Insipidus in latin means

Diabetes - water going through
Insipidus - water

Watery urine

51

What are the three Ps of diabetes

Polyuria
Polydipsia
Polyphagia

52

Exocrine vs endocrine mode of action

Exocrine - secretes via duct directly somewhere

Endocrine- secretes and get absorbed to travel through blood