Flashcards in Lecture 5 Deck (23)
1) The central nervous system is made up of the __________ and __________.
2) __________ is the liquid in which the brain and spinal cord float, protecting them from bumps and bruises, like a shock-absorption system.
CSF (Cerebrospinal Fluid)
3) In most of the body, the walls of capillaries have small openings that let chemicals pass from the blood into the cells of other tissues. Not in the brain. The ____________ prevents many toxic substances from getting into the brain.
BBB (Blood-brain barrier)
4) In the brain, __________ sensory areas begin processing sensory information, while _________ areas do the next step: perceiving, learning, and planning.
5) Generally speaking, information from three of the senses- vision, audition, and somatosensation - travel to the __________ side of the brain, while smell and taste travel to the _________ side of the brain.
6) The two hemispheres of the brain communicate with each other, but some functions are _________, which means they are performed primarily by one side of the brain.
7) The __________ receives and integrates sensory information, and assists other parts of the brain in controlling movement, but, more importantly, it serves as relay station to the rest of the cortex.
8) The __________ control slow movements, large muscles and learning skilled movements. Neurons here are degenerated by Parkinson's disease.
9) In the limbic system, the ________ is involved in spatial and episodic memory, while the _________ affects emotional behavior and controls fight or flight reactions.
10) ________ is the process of regulating important physiological characteristics (e.g. body temperature, blood pressure, hydration, and nutrition) at optimal levels.
11) The hypothalamus controls the __________ gland, which is the "master gland" for hormones.
13) In __________________, electrodes are placed on the scalp that record patterns of electrical brain potential, while in ___________________, a recording device detects tiny magnetic field changes that accompany action potentials in the cerebral cortex.
14) _________ are branch-like growths attached to the body of a neuron which functions primarily to receive messages from other neurons.
15) __________ is the collective name for various cells in the brain that can form fibers that guide developing neurons into the correct place, can make chemicals that neurons need or take away harmful chemicals, or can make myelin to protect the neurons' axons, to name a few of their functions.
16) During resting potential, the inside of the neuron is ________ mV relative to what's outside the neuron (the extracellular).
17) An ________ is a special protein molecule located in the membrane of the cell that controls that entry or exit of particular ions.
18) After neurotransmitters bind to receptor sites, the presynaptic cell begins a process of recycling (taking back) those neurotransmitters called ________.
19) _________ is the main excitatory neurotransmitter in the brain, while ________ is the main inhibitory neurotransmitter in the brain
20) __________ is the primary neurotransmitter secreted by motor neurons. It is secreted onto muscle cells (and onto other neurons).
21) __________ is a neurotransmitter that is very important for movement, attention, learning, and reward and has therefore been heavily implicated in brain processes related to addiction.
22) The neurotransmitter _________ has complex behavioral effects in humans. It regulates pain and REM sleep and is very important in depression, anxiety, disorders, and Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder.
23) Endogenous __________ receptors are EVERYWHERE in the brain. They respond to a chemical called THC, which affects concentration, memory, and perception, among other processes.