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Flashcards in lecture 5 Deck (73):

phlegm aka

phlegm-rheum or phlegm-water


difference between fluids and water/rheum

fluids:(jin-ye) are the nourishing liquid substances of the body
water/rheum: the pathological collection of fluids in one area of the body due to non movement


difference between phlegm amd water rheum

phlegm is thicker and more viscous while water (rheum) is thinner.
Water can collect in certain areas of the body (chest, skin, muscles)
phlegm can move anywhere via the SJ and mvmt of Qi


phlegm can be produced by ANY improper function of what organs



where is phelgm made and stored

made in the SP and stored in the LU


imbalances that may lead to phlegm accumulation

attack of exogenous influences
damange by the seven affects
distruption of qi/yang


what is fire's influence on fluid metabolism

fire does not affect the qi transformation process but can act on fluid metabolism directly
"phlegm is merely fire with form; fire is merely formless phlegm"


what are sx of phlem in the LU

cough and wheezing, excessive phlegm and expectoration


what are sx of phlem in the HT

stifling sensation in the chest and palpitations (heart is obstructed)


what are sx of phlegm misting the orifices

unconsciousness, incoherent, and mental deficiency


what are sx of phlegm-fire disturbing the heart

mania, possible epilepsy


what are sx of phlem in the ST

nausea, vomiting, fullness, pain in the stomach and abdomen (due to stomach being unable to descend)


what are sx of phlem in the meridians, tendons, and bones

scrofula, numbness, hemiplegia, bone spurs


what are sx of phlem in the head

light-headed/feeling faint


blood stasis

a condition in which blood fluid in part of the body is not moving. This includes blood in the vessels and blood that leaves the vessels and becomes stagnant inside the body


what are some factors that lead to the formation of blood stasis

qi deficiency
qi stagnation
clots in the blood
heat in the blood
external injuries/trauma


Qi is the _____ of blood



if qi is deficient, how will this affect the blood

if qi is deficient there may not be enough qi to adequately move the blood leading to blood stasis


if qi is stagnant, how will this affect the blood

if qi is stagnant it cannot move blood leading to blood stasis


substantial vs insubstantial phlegm

substantial is external, insubstantial is internal
(however the translation for "insubstantial" is not technically accurate)


cold will cause the blood to_

contract and stagnate


heat will cause the blood to_

congeal and lead to stasis


what is the effect on blood when there is SP qi deficiency, heat and/or trauma

blood may be caused to move outside the vessels and stagnate in the body


what are some general signs and sx of blood stasis

sharp/fixed pain which increases with pressure and possibly gets worse at night
masses and swellings - palpable in the muscles & may be observable, slightly blue, hard & fixed
internal masses
bleeding-dark purple; clotting in mentrual blood
thin/choppy pulse (deficiency), deep and wiry (qi stag), regular or irregular intermittent pulse


sx of blood stasis in the heart

palpitations, stifling sensation in the chest and heart pain, cyanosis of lips and nails, in severe cases-mania


sx of blood stasis in the lung

chest pain and hemoptysis


sx of blood stasis in the stomach and intestine

pain in the epigastrium, vomiting blood, black stool (blood in stool)


sx of blood stasis in the liver

hypochondriac pain, palpable abdominal masses


sx of blood stasis in the uterus

lower abdominal pain, menstrual irregularities (dysmenorrhea, clotting dark red or purple flow, excessive bleeding)


sx of blood stasis in the extremities

gangrene, ans possible subcutaneous hematoma


the basic principles that guide the emergence of disease consist of what three principles

1. insufficiency of right qu (zheng qi) is the internal factor in the emergence of disease
2. evil qi (xie qi) is an essential prerequisite for the emergence of disease
3. the outcome of the fight between zheng qi and xie qi determines whether or not a disease emerges


what are the four factors in pathogenesis

1. relative strength and weakness of the right qi and evil qi
2. disharmony of yin and yang
3. imbalances of qi, blood, and body fluid
4. dysfunction of viscera, bowels and extraordinary organs


what are the two main types of disease patterns

excess (shi)
deficiency (xu)


zheng qi

right qi (jing, qi, blood, and fluids) compendium of the active aspects of the body (organs, blood, jing, fluids) and all forms of qi (yuan, construction, defense, organ, and channel) that come together to maintain health and resist disease


xie qi

evil qi; including, but not limited to the 6 environments (referred to as the 6 evils when in excess in the body)
"any entity in its active aspect of harming the body"


when the right qi is strong or the pathogen is weak_

the right qi wins the struggle and can fend off the pathogen; therefore disease does not emerge


when the right qi is vacuous and the pathogen is strong_

evils wins the battle and can invade, disrupting natural interrelationships and disease may arise


causes of excess disease patterns

six evils
epidemic pathogens
stagnation and accumulation of: qi, phlegm/water, food blood


signs and sx of excess disease patterns

fullness, pain that does not like pressure, panting, wheezing, inhibited urination, vexation, or delirium


what are sx of excess heat diseases

high fever, aversion to heat


what are sx of excess cold diseases

constriction and pain, aversion to cold


what are sx of excess disease in the heart

vexation, agitation, and in severe cases, delirious speech


what are sx of excess disease lodged in the lung

panting, wheezing.
*if phlegm is exuberant, than rattling is heard on auscultation


what are sx of excess disease lodged in intestines

bowel qi is not free, leading to distention, fullness and pain that is worse with pressure


what are sx of replete water-damp evil

may block the formation of urine or inhibit the movement of urine


what is the pulse like of an excess disease

full and forceful


what may the tongue look like with an excess disease

thick and greasy tongue coat (if water turbidity or phlegm steams and rises)


causes of deficient (xu) disease patterns

chronic diseases/consumptive diseases (diminish the vital substances and fluids) weakness develops over time. Chronic/consumptive diseases will weaken the right qi


s/sx of vacuous yang qi

decreased functions in warming, transporting, protecting and holding leading to: pale facial complexion, physical cold with cold limbs, fatigued spirit with sob, spontaneous sweating, loose stool, frequent urination, pale tongue body


s/sx of vacuous yin qi

malar flush afternoon, five centers heat, heart vexation and palpitations, night sweats, red tongue, with little or no fur


pulse of dual vacuity of qi and blood

empty and forceless pulse, or thin and forceless


external, hot and excess diseases are ascribed to



internal, cold and deficient diseases are ascribed to



what are the 4 basic patterns of yin/yang disharmony

excess of yang, excess of yin, deficienty of yang, deficiency of yin


causes of excess heat

the hyperactivity of yang qi:
heat (or fire) or other yang pathogen
cold pathogen which has transformed into heat
emotional imbalances which can turn into heat
qi and blood stagnation turned into depressed heat
diet (spicy, greasy food, alcohol_) and improper use of warm herbs


s/sx of excess heat

fever, aversion to heat, red face, red eyes, vexation and agitation, rough breathing, loud voice, bitter taste, desire for cold liquids, red urine, boud stool, red tongue body, yellow and dry fur, surging/rapid/forceful pulse


causes of excess cold

cold, damp, yin pathogen
excessive consumption of raw cold food/herbs or cold medicinals


s/x of excess cold

cold body and limbs, aversion to cold, pale tongue, pulse is slow and forceless


causes of yang deficiency

congenital deficiencies (weakness of pre-heaven)
aquired deficiency (lack of nutrition, overexertion, or chronic disease [organ dysfunction])
old age


s/sx of yang deficiency

bright white facial complexion, fatigue, lack of strength, fear of cold, cold limbs and body, lying curled up in fetal position, spontaneous sweating, arge and tender tongue body, slow forceless pulse


causes of yin deficiency

congenital deficiencies, pathogenic yang that damages yin, unbalanced emotions (qi stag) that turn into fire and damage yin, chronic disease, overexertion, hot food/herbs, old age


s/sx of yin deficiency

dryness, thirst, tidal fever, malar flush, heat of the 5 centers, night sweats, insomnia, tender red tongue with little or no fur, fine pulse


in mixed patterns of deficient yin and yang, we assume that what organ is also either yin or yang deficient



T/F_deficient yin causes damage to yang & deficient yang causes damage to yin



deficient yin damaging yang

in longstanding cases of yin deficiency the attendant hyperactivity of yang can over time weaken the essential qi of the kidney and weaken the yang


s/sx of deficient yin damaging yang

aversion to cold, cold limbs, deep weak pulse, heat signs caused by yin deficiency


deficient yang damaging yin

in longstanding cases of yang deficiency essential qi of the kidney is damaged. This leads to generalized qi deficienty and an inability to produce yin fluid


s/sx of deficient yang damagint yin

thin body, irritibility, dryness, heat signs in upper burner, cold signs from yang vacuity


collapse of yin and yang

a situation in which either yin-fluid or yang-qi is suddenly and excessively lost.
The substance collapses.
Terminal stage of disease if not promptly and correcly treated death is imminent


causes of collapse of yang

pathogen is so strong right qi cannot resist and yang suddenly collapses.
Yang qi is Constitutionally weak and with overexertion it collapses.
Excessive sweating, bleeding or diarrhea can cuase excessive loss of yang qi


s/sx of yang collapse

profuse cold sweat, very cold limbs, sleeping in fetal position, listlessness, faint deep pulse


causes of yin collapse

severe pathogenic heat
chronic pathogenic heat that consues/exhausts the yin fluid
severe bleeding, diarrhea, sweating, vomiting (anything that rapidly depletes yin fluid)


s/sx of yin collapse

profuse sticky sweat, warm limbs, shortness of breath, thirst, irritability, rapid and faint pulse