Lecture #6 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Lecture #6 Deck (43):
1

Functions of the Lymphatic System

1. Fluid Recovery
2. Immunity
3. Lipid

2

Immunity 3 lines of defence?

1. External Barriers
- Skin, mucous membrane, trachea

2. Non-specific (innate) Defense Mechanism
- protective proteins, cells, and processes

3. Adaptive Immune System
- Leaves body with a memory of the pathogen

3

Pathogen

Viruses, bacteria, fungi, parasites , toxins

4

Innate Immunity Principal characteristics

- is rapid response
- fixed
- broad specificities
- constant

5

Adaptive Immunity principal characteristics

- slow response
- variable
- numerous highly selective specificities
- improve during response

6

Innate Immunity consists of ....

Two parts
1. Pathogen recognition
2. Recruitment of destructive effector mechanism

7

Antimicrobial Proteins

-creates a pore in the membrane and destructs the infected cell

-interferons
- complement pathways

8

The Innate Immune response causes Inflammation

1. Bacteria is introduces

2. Vasodilation occurs

3. Infected tissue becomes inflamed, causing redness, heat, swelling and pain

9

Adaptive Immunity consists of .....

1) Specificity
2) Memory

10

Classes of Adaptive Immunity

1. Natural Active Immunity - production of owns antibodies/ T cells as a result of natural exposure to an antigen

2. Artificial Immunity - production of owns antibodies or T cell by vaccination

3. Natural Passive Immunity - Temporary immunity that results from acquiring antibodies produced by another person ie. baby and mom

4. Artificial Passive Immunity - temporary immunity that results from injection of an immune serum obtained by another person i.e. snake bites

11

B cell encounters a antigen

mature into a plasma cell which secretes antibodies

12

T cells encounter antigen

mature into Effector T cells;

1. cytotoxic T cells - kill cells with virus

2. Helper T cells - secrete cytokines, help with immunity and controls activities of other T cells

13

Antigen

Structure on macromolecule, virus, or cell that is recognized and bound by an immunoglobin (ig's) and T cell receptors

14

Humoral Immunity

- immunity due to antibodies
- neutralization

- opsonization - flagging for destruction coating of pathogen by antibody to facilitate phagocytosis

15

Vaccination

Serve disease prevented by prior exposure to the infectious agent in a form that cannot cause disease

16

Cardiovascular system

heart and blood vessels

17

circulatory system

heart, blood vessels, and the blood

18

Left side of the heart

pumping blood to all the organs in the body

19

Right Side of the heart

pumps blood into pulmonary truck

20

Function of valves

- ensure one way blood flow
- open and close in response to changes in pressure

21

Atrioventicular Valves

- one way flow from the atria to ventricles

- tricuspid means 3 cups/ leaflets

-bicuspid means one way flow from the ventricles to pulmonary artery or aorta
pulmonary semilunar valve
aortic semilunar valve

22

Valves of the Heart have

chordae tendinae: attach to papillary muscles

- prevents backward explosion (prolapse)

23

Diastole

- ventricles are relaxed
- pressure drops inside ventricles
- semilunar valves close as blood tries to back up
- AV valves open
- Blood flow from atria to ventricles

24

Systole

- Ventricles contract

- AV valves close as blood tries to back up

- pressure rises inside of ventricles

_ semilunar valves open and blood flow into great vessels

25

Heart has its own circulatory system

5% of blood bumped by the heart is to pump the heart through the coronary circulation

26

Angina

Angina pectoris – is chest pain from partial obstruction of coronary blood flow

27

Myocardial infarction (MI)

Heart Attack --sudden death of a patch of myocardium resulting from long-term obstruction of the coronary circulation

28

Myocardial Ischemia

ischemia means lack of blood flow

29

Automaticity

describes that heart cells can spontaneous depolarize to threshold without any information

30

Rhythmicity

heart's conduction is in a regular manner, ie. regular generation of an action potential

31

Electrical conduction through the heart

- electrical signal initiates muscle contrations

- electrical signals travel from cell to cell through gap junctions

- Conduction system --- coordinates the heartbeat

32

Pacemaker of the heart is located

in the right atrium

33

Membrane Potentials

Intracellular K+> (greater than) Extracellular K+

Intraceullar Na< (less than) Extracellular Na+

34

Pacemaker

Sa node does not have a stable resting membrane potential

1. starts at -60mV
2. gradual depolarization called pacemaker potential
3. reaches threshold og -40mV K+ channels open and repolarization occurs
4. K+ channels close, pacemaker potential starts again

SA nodes fire every 0.8 seconds setting the Resting Rate at 75bpm
q

35

Cardiac Action potential

1. Na+ channels open

2. Na+ depolarizes the membrane and opens more Na+ channels

3. Na+ channels close, voltage peaks at nearly +30mV

4. Ca2+ enters slowing, prolongs depolarization,creates plateau. falls slightly b/c K+ leakage

5. Ca+ channels close and Ca2+ is transported out of the cell. K+ channels open and rapid K+ outflow returns membrane to its resting potential

36

Electrocardiograms (ECG/EKG)

measure the electrical activity of the heart

37

P wave

SA node fires, atria depolarize and contracts

38

PQ segment

Atrial contraction (atrial systole)

39

QRS complex

- ventricular depolarization
- complex shape of spike due to different thickness and shape of the two ventricles

40

ST segment

ventricular systole

41

T wave

ventricular are depolarizing and relaxing

42

Pressure

impels fluid to move
- according to pressure gradient (high to low)

43

Resistance

opposes flow