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Flashcards in Lecture 6 Deck (44):
1

Spastic dysarthria is due to what type of damage?

UMN

2

What are the underlying characteristics underlying spastic dysarthria?

spasticity and weakness (reduces range and force of movement)

3

spastic dysarthria is caused by unilateral or bilateral damage? And this is damage to what?

- Bilateral
- Direct and indirect pathways of the CNS

4

Spastic dysarthria may manifest in what components of speech?

- respiratory, phonatory, resonatory, and articulatory.

5

Which is milder UUMN or spastic dysarthria?

UUMN

6

Unilateral or Bilateral Damage:
Spastic dysarthria is due to?
UUMN is due to?

-Bilateral damage
-Unilateral damage

7

What is the main difference in damage when comparing UUMN to spastic dysarthria?

UUMN is unilateral UMN damage
Spastic dysarthria is bilateral UMN damage

8

Motor impairment after an internal capsule lesion can be significant. Why?

Because descending fibers are closely packed at this level.

9

Spasticity is believed to be due damage to _______ that travel alongside the _____ and ______ _____

- Indirect activation pathways
- corticobulbar and corticospinal tracts

10

cranial nerve nuclei is aka

LMN

11

Indirect Pathways:
Where do they originate?
Where do they synapse?
where do they terminate?

- in the cortex
-on nuclei in the brainstem
- cranial nerve nuclei (LMN)

12

What are the functions of indirect activation pathways?

regulates reflexes and maintains posture and muscle tone

13

Damage to Indirect pathways result in what?
What are the effect of damage?

-Spastic dysarthria or UUMN
- hyperreflexia and spasticity

14

What are the confirmatory signs of spastic dysarthria? (4)

-spasticity
-hyperreflexia
-pathological oral reflexes
-emotional lability (continuous change or breakdown)

15

What speech subsystems tend to be involved in spastic dysarthria?

All of them

16

In left hemisphere lesions, what disorders may mask the presence of UUMN dysarthria?

Aphasia and Apraxia of speech

17

What are the confirmatory non-speech signs of spastic dysarthria?

- unilateral lower facial weakness
-unilateral tongue weakness

18

What are the distinctive speech characteristics of spastic dysarthria?

slowness of speech and strained-harsh vocal quality

19

What are the characteristic speech signs in UUMN dysarthria?

mildness of deficits and articulation imprecision

20

Ataxic dysarthria is due to damage to what?

Cerebellum or cerebellar control circuits

21

Speech characteristics in ataxic dysarthria are primarily due to what?

Impaired coordination

22

What would you expect on an oral motor exam with an individual with ataxic dysarthria?

They may have a normal oral mech exam

23

Cerebellar symptoms are unilateral, contralateral, or ipsilateral?

Ipsilateral

24

What are the key speech characteristics of ataxic dysarthria?

irregular articulatory and prosodic errors

25

Cerebellar lesions result in

- hypotonocity
- Errors in force, speed, timing, range and direction of movement
-intention/kinetic tremor

26

Hypokinetic dysarthria is due damage to what?

the basal ganglia and/or basal ganglia control circuits

27

Damage to the basal ganglia generally results in what?

reduction of movement or dyskinesias

28

What is the most common cause of hypokinetic dysarthria?

Parkinson's disease

29

Parkinson's disease is the result of what and in what location?

degeneration of the dopamine producing neurons in the substantia nigra

30

Parkinson's is characterized by what? (4)

-rigidity
-reduced range of motion
-difficulty initiating movements
-resting tremors

31

What are the non-speech signs of hypokinetic dysarthria?

- mask-like, expressionless face
- tremor/tremulousness of the lips
-tongue and jaw at rest
-normal strength

32

What are the characteristic speech impairments with hypokinetic dysarthria?

-hypophonia
-reduced loudness
-mono-loudness
-fast speech rate

33

Hyperkinetic dysarthria is due to damage to what?

the basal ganglia

34

Hyperkinesia refers to what type of movement?

abnormal extra involuntary movements. They can be quickly or slowly produced

35

What underlies or is the cause of speech impairments in hyperkinetic dysarthria?

hyperkinesias

36

How are dyskinesias usually classified?

fast or slow

37

What does an oral mechanism exam look like with someone with hyperkinetic dysarthria?

normal except for the presence of involuntary movements

38

Hyperkinetic dysarthria dyskinesias: Tremor
Tremor can affect all the muscles of speech production, but most commonly affects what?

voice

39

Huntington's disease is characterized by what?

quick, choreic movements

40

The speech of individuals with Huntington's disease is characterized by what>

- sudden voice arrests with with strained quality
- irregular articulatory breakdowns
-prosodic abnormalities

41

Hyperkinetic dysarthria dyskinesias: dystonia
dystonic movements are what?
And what speech subsystems are affected?

-slow and sustained
-can affect any speech subsystem

42

There are dysarthrias that are due to a laryngeal dyskinesia. Which dyskinesia?

Dystonia

43

What is adductor spasmodic dysphonia?

Intermittent strained vocal quality

44

What is abductor spasmodic dysphonia?

Intermittent breathiness