Lecture 6 - Glycogen Structure, Regulation of Glucogen Metabolism Flashcards Preview

Fuel Metabolism - 2016 > Lecture 6 - Glycogen Structure, Regulation of Glucogen Metabolism > Flashcards

Flashcards in Lecture 6 - Glycogen Structure, Regulation of Glucogen Metabolism Deck (50):
1

A desirable characteristic of a storage form of glucose is that glucose can be easily deposited in the well-fed state and easily mobilized during fasting. Why is the highly branched structure of glycogen responsible for this property?

Both synthesis and degradation occur at the end of branch points, also known as the non-reducing ends

2

During what "state" does the liver store glycogen?

Fed state

3

During what "state" does the liver degrade glycogen to provide glucose?

Fasted state

4

When is glycogen degraded in the muscles?

during exercise (muscle glycogen does NOT contribute to blood glucose in the fasted state)

5

The net energy cost of incorporating each free glucose molecule into glycogen is:

2 high-energy phosphate bonds

6

What is the frequency of branching in glycogen?

every 8-10 glucose units

7

The glucose monomers within a chain are held together by ______________ bonds.

a-1,4 glycosidic bonds

8

The branch points in glycogen are created by ______________ bonds.

a-1,6 glycosidic bonds

9

"Trapping the glucose" inside the cell is the initial step in converting blood glucose to glycogen. a) How is this achieved, and b) what enzymes are used?

a) Phosphate group transferred from ATP to the C6 hydroxyl group of glucose
b) Catalyzed by tissue-specific isozymes, hexokinase, and glucokinase

10

How does insulin aid in trapping the blood glucose in the plasma membrane?

GLUT-4 transporter is recruited to plasma membrane by insulin, making more intracellular glucose available

11

How does insulin impact glucose uptake in the liver?

Insulin induces the synthesis of glucokinase, ensuring continued uptake of glucose in the liver

12

What enzyme catalyzes the conversion of Glucose-6-P to Glucose-1-P?

phosphoglucomutase

13

In order for Glucose-6-P to be stored as glycogen, it must first be converted to:

glucose-1-P

14

An essential intermediate in the conversion of glucose-6-P to glucose-1-P is:

Glucose-1,6-bisphosphate

15

What are mutases?

Enzymes that move a group from one position to another within the same molecule

16

Substrates in the formation of UDP-Glucose are Glu-1-P and UTP. What enzyme catalyzes this reaction?

UDP-glucose pyrophosphorylase

17

Glycogen synthase catalyzes the transfer of glucose from UDP-glu to _________.

A non-reducing end of the glycogen fragment

18

The transfer of glucose from UDP-glu to a non-reducing end of the glycogen fragment results in the formation of:

an a-1,4-glycoside bond

19

In the absence of a glycogen primer, what acts as an acceptor of the initial glucose residue in the transfer of glucose from UDP-glu to the glycogen fragment?

the protein glycogenin

20

What are 3 consequences of branching?

1. increased solubility
2. increased number of non-reducing ends
3. increased potential for rapid mobilization and deposition of glucose

21

How does insulin promote fuel storage?

Insulin promotes the dephosphorylation of key enzymes involved in glycogen metabolism.

22

What two molecules are antagonists of the effects of insulin?

1. Glucagon
2. Epinephrine

23

Promotion of fuel storage by insulin is medicated by what two mechanisms?

1. Insulin activates protein phosphastase
2. Insulin results in decreased levels of cAMP

24

Both glucagon and epinephrine _______ levels of cAMP in the cell

increase

25

In the fed state, what happens to the insulin/glucagon ratio?

It increases - meaning levels of insulin activate protein phosphastase 1 and glycogen synthase is active.

26

In the fasted state, what happens to the insulin/glucagon ratio?

It decreases, meaning cAMP levels are increased, and glucagon/cAMP activate Protein Kinase A.

27

What effect does phosphorylation have on glycogen synthase activity?

Phosphorylation inactivates glycogen synthase

28

A low insulin/glucagon ratio promotes:

phosphorylation of glycogen synthase

29

_________ is activated by a high insulin/glucagon ratio.

protein phosphastase 1

30

What effect does glucose-6-P have on glycogen synthase?

High concentrates of G-6-P will allosterically activate the normally inactive phospho-form of glycogen synthase.

31

When G-6-P accumulates in the cell faster than it is being used by catabolic pathways, it allosterically activates phospho-glycogen synthase. What else does G-6-P activate?

protein phosphatase-1

32

Which of the following is NOT a condition promoting glycogen mobilization?

A. degradation in between meals to maintain constant blood glucose levels
B. An increase in glucagon
C. An increase in epinephrine
D. An increase in the insulin/glucagon ratio
E. An accumulation of AMP in muscle

D - A decrease in the insulin/glucagon ratio (i.e. an increase in glucagon) promotes glycogen mobilization.

33

____________ catalyzes the rate-limiting step in glycogenolysis.

Glycogen phosphorylase

34

A cofactor is required to form a Schiff's base with a lysyl E-amino group at the active site of glycogen phosphorylase. What is this cofactor?

Pyridoxal-phosphate (vitamin B6)

35

What is the function of Glucan transferase during the debranching of glycogen?

cleaves one a-1,4 glycosidic bond and forms another, creating a longer chain that is a better substrate for phosphorylase

36

Glycogen phosphorylase releases Glu-1-P. In contrast, the a-1,6 glucosidase reaction __________.

releases free glucose

37

What is an important allosteric activator in skeletal muscle and acts as an indicator of the decreased energy status of the cell?

AMP

38

What is an important allosteric inhibitor in the liver isozyme and indicates the glucose status of the cell?

Glucose

39

Binding of epinephrine to _____________ receptors increases cAMP levels in the muscle cell.

B-adrenergic

40

What happens to cAMP levels in the muscle cell when epinephrine binds to B-adrenergic receptors?

cAMP levels increase increase in muscle cell

41

What effect does epinephrine binding to a-epinephrine receptors have in the muscle cell?

Ca2+ concentration increases in muscle cell

42

_______ allosterically activates phosphorylase kinase to synchronize muscle contraction with glycogenolysis.

Calcium

43

Under conditions of atoxia and ATP depletion, what effect will AMP have in the muscle?

Accumulation of AMP will allosterically activate the inactive dephospho-form of glycogen phosphorylase.

44

Epinephrine can bind to B-adrenergic receptors in the liver, involving a cAMP-dependent cascade which activates protein kinases. What mediates hormonal activation by epinephrine binding to a1-receptors?

second messengers inositol triphosphate (IP3) and Ca2+

45

What are 3 allosteric inhibitors of glycogen phosphorylase?

1. ATP
2. glucose
3. G-6-P

46

What is the GL protein?

regulatory subunit that directs PP1 to glycogen phosphorylase (for dephosphorylation)

47

What two molecules inhibit the interaction of PP1 and GL?

1. glucagon
2. epinephrine

48

Synthesis of cAMP is stimulated by what two molecules?

1. epinephrine in liver/muscle
2. glucagon in liver

49

Degradation of cAMP Phosphodiesterase is activated by insulin. What is it inhibited by?

Caffeine

50

What disease involves a defect of the muscle isozyme of glycogen phosphorylase?

McArdle's disease