Flashcards in Lecture 7: Y chromosome Deck (77)
Lineage markers are ___ as discriminative as autosomal markers
Are lineage markers useful as forensic markers?
possess some features which make them useful
whats the difference between autosomal DNA markers and Lineage markers?
Autosomal DNA markers are shuffled with each
Lineage markers passed down generations
when do lineage markers change?
if theres a mutational event
whats the lineage marker for the Y chromosome called?
lineage markers are passed down from?
generation to generation
can you use the product rule when calculating random match probability ?
when do mutations arise?
during the DNA copying process
are mutations random?
mutation rates for a Y-STR are between ?
10^-3 and 10^-4 per locus per generation.
How many Y chromosomes do males have?
How much of the human genome is contained in the Y chromosome ?
how long is the Y chromosome?
what male specific functions odes the Y chromosome code for?
sex determination and spermatogenesis
what are the 2 main regions for the Y chromosome ?
1. pseudo- autosomal regions (PAR 1 and PAR 2)
2. Male specific Y region (NRY)
whats the euchromatic region?
chromatin that exists in an extended state containing genes that may or may not be expressed
what's more constant in size the euchromatic region or heterochromatic region?
euchromatic regin - 23 Mb
in meiosis when does the genetic crossing over occur and what doe sit lead too?
prophase 1, leads to new gene combinations.
The Y chromosome does not have _____ chromosome.
Does a large region of the Y chromosome recombine with the X chromosome ?
only a very small region
what's located on the tip of the short arm?
pseudo-autosomal region one (PAR 1)
where is PAR 2 located?
distal end of the long arm.
whats avoided when looking for suitable forensic markers, for Y chromosome ?
regions of the Y-chromosome that share homology with the X chromosome
on the Y chromosome what is diversity due to?
due to mutation alone due to the lack of recombination
diversity on the Y chrosome terms?
haplotype (STRs) or haplogroups (SNP or Alu element insertion)
whats a haplotype/group?
collection of alleles that are linked (inherited together)
Name 3 Y polymorphisms?
• Y-VNTRs • Y-STRs • Y-SNPs
what do VNTRs consist of?
MSY1 consists of a repeat unit of 25 bp. Polymorphism of 48-118 repeats.
Autosomal VNTRs contain a lot of what?