Lecture 8: Mitochondrial DNA (unfinished ) Flashcards Preview

2nd year sem 1: Forensic Genetics > Lecture 8: Mitochondrial DNA (unfinished ) > Flashcards

Flashcards in Lecture 8: Mitochondrial DNA (unfinished ) Deck (49)
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1

what DNA markers are shuffled with each generation?

Autosomal

2

Lineage Markers are passed on how ?

passed down generations

3

mitochondrial DNA is inherited from?

mum

4

mitochondrial DNA stay stem same for who?

child, mother, grandmother etc. only mutations cause changes

5

does everyone have mitochondrial DNA?

yes

6

Lineage markers are not as great at identifying people as what?

nuclear DNA

7

where is majority of Human DNA located?

in the nucleus

8

when can it be hard to obtain nuclear DNA?

Ancient DNA
Badly degraded
Bone, teeth, hair

9

if theres no direct relatives to act as refrences, what used instead of nuclear DNA?

mitochondrial

10

where is mitochondria found?

cells cytoplasm

11

what does mitochondria contain?

several strands and loops of mitochondrial DNA - can contain 1000's of copies of DNA

12

Mitochondrial DNA has a ___ copy rate.

high

13

Mitochondrial main
responsibility is what?

Responsible for energy production – 90% of the energy required by the cell

14

mitochondria converts what?

Convert food energy -> Adenosine Triphosphate (ATP)

15

in every mitochondria how many copies of DNA is there?

1-15 copies mtDNA per mitochondria (average 4-5)

16

why is mitochondria DNA used for degraded samples?

because of the high copy number of mtDNA

17

mtDNA survives traumatic experiences and in ancient tissues because what?

It has 2 cell walls ,resistant to nucleases which degrade DNA

18

mtDNA can be tracked over generations because?

No recombination

19

whats the shape of mtDNA?

Circular DNA molecule ( not helix )its a loop

20

is mtDNA double stranded?

yes

21

what are the two strands of mtDNa?

Heavy strand = purine-rich (A/G)
Light strand = pyrimidine rich (C/T)

22

mt DNA has how many base pairs? how many genes does it code for?

16,569 , codes for 37 genes

23

what's the control region in the mtDNA?

Displacement loop (d-loop)

24

mtDNA is separated at which part?

at the d-loop

25

nucDNA and mtDNA which one mutates faster?

mtDNA mutation rate is 10x greater than for nucDNA

26

what 2 main regions of mtDNA do we go to every time?

Hypervariable region 1 and Hypervariable region 2

27

where are the Hypervariable regions located?

within the d-loop

28

why does mtDNA mutate rapidly?

- Fewer DNA repair mechanisms
- a lack of proof-reading capabilities in the mtDNA polymerase
- replicates frequently
- vulnerable to cumulative damage from free radicals generated by the electron transport chain

29

the d loop is a what region?

a non coding region

30

where do mutations happen in mt DNA?

in the d-loop