Flashcards in Lecture 8: Mitochondrial DNA (unfinished ) Deck (49)
what DNA markers are shuffled with each generation?
Lineage Markers are passed on how ?
passed down generations
mitochondrial DNA is inherited from?
mitochondrial DNA stay stem same for who?
child, mother, grandmother etc. only mutations cause changes
does everyone have mitochondrial DNA?
Lineage markers are not as great at identifying people as what?
where is majority of Human DNA located?
in the nucleus
when can it be hard to obtain nuclear DNA?
Bone, teeth, hair
if theres no direct relatives to act as refrences, what used instead of nuclear DNA?
where is mitochondria found?
what does mitochondria contain?
several strands and loops of mitochondrial DNA - can contain 1000's of copies of DNA
Mitochondrial DNA has a ___ copy rate.
responsibility is what?
Responsible for energy production – 90% of the energy required by the cell
mitochondria converts what?
Convert food energy -> Adenosine Triphosphate (ATP)
in every mitochondria how many copies of DNA is there?
1-15 copies mtDNA per mitochondria (average 4-5)
why is mitochondria DNA used for degraded samples?
because of the high copy number of mtDNA
mtDNA survives traumatic experiences and in ancient tissues because what?
It has 2 cell walls ,resistant to nucleases which degrade DNA
mtDNA can be tracked over generations because?
whats the shape of mtDNA?
Circular DNA molecule ( not helix )its a loop
is mtDNA double stranded?
what are the two strands of mtDNa?
Heavy strand = purine-rich (A/G)
Light strand = pyrimidine rich (C/T)
mt DNA has how many base pairs? how many genes does it code for?
16,569 , codes for 37 genes
what's the control region in the mtDNA?
Displacement loop (d-loop)
mtDNA is separated at which part?
at the d-loop
nucDNA and mtDNA which one mutates faster?
mtDNA mutation rate is 10x greater than for nucDNA
what 2 main regions of mtDNA do we go to every time?
Hypervariable region 1 and Hypervariable region 2
where are the Hypervariable regions located?
within the d-loop
why does mtDNA mutate rapidly?
- Fewer DNA repair mechanisms
- a lack of proof-reading capabilities in the mtDNA polymerase
- replicates frequently
- vulnerable to cumulative damage from free radicals generated by the electron transport chain
the d loop is a what region?
a non coding region