Lecture One : Hybridization and DNA cloning techniques ( not finished) Flashcards Preview

2nd year sem 1: Forensic Genetics > Lecture One : Hybridization and DNA cloning techniques ( not finished) > Flashcards

Flashcards in Lecture One : Hybridization and DNA cloning techniques ( not finished) Deck (49)
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1

what's DNA made of?

phosphate group
deoxyribose sugar
phosphate group

2

How many strands does DNA have?

2

3

how many carbons does pentose sugar have?

5

4

How many hydrogen bonds do each base pairings have?

AT - 2
CG- 3

5

whats chromatin?

proteins and DNA that are stacked together

6

minor groove in DNA is _____.

smaller

7

what are Purine bases?

A and G

8

what are pyrimidine bases?

T and C

9

whats a chromosome?

dense packets of DNA by which hereditary information is passed from one generation to the next

10

whats a autosome?

any chromosome other than a sex chromosom

11

whats a Gene?

a sequence of DNA nucleotides on a chromosome

12

whats a Allele?

alternative forms of a gene/marker at a specific genetic location

13

whats a STR?

short tandem repeat

14

whats a SNIP?

single nucleotide polymorphism

15

How do we select the desired target region?

hybridisation

16

How do you amplify and purify the desired target?

1. DNA cloning
2. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR)

17

what is hybridisation?

two strands of DNA joining together

18

How can you denature DNA?

1. Heating the DNA
2. Exposure to polar chemicals such as formamide or urea

19

does denaturing DNA do?

breaks it apart into single strand does not damage the DNA

20

what is Re-forming of the DNA strands known as?

nucleic acid annealing or hybridization.

21

what can happen when annealing occures?

homoduplexes or heteroduplexes

22

whats a heteroduplexes?

uplex where base pairing is not perfect across the full
length of a fragment, or when the DNA from each strand is from two different sources.

23

what can DNA pair with?

DNA, RNA and oligonucleotide sequences.

24

whats oligonucleotide?

short synthesised, single stranded DNA molecule, ~50 nucleotides long also sometimes referred to as a probe.

25

oligonucleotide is also known as a ____.

probe

26

what makes a DNA duplex stable?

bases matching between the two molecules.

27

when is stability fo a DNA duplex not affected?

short non complimentary regions don't affect the overall stability

28

what is stringency?

conditions which will affect weather two strands anneal

29

what happens when the conditions of stringency are too low ?

conditions too low, probe/DNA will anneal to non complimentary regions

30

whats the perfect temperature for annealing?

temperature just below the melting temperature (T ) of the DNA or the
oligonucleotide being used.