Flashcards in Lecture 8 DA Deck (136)
What are 6 characteristics of subphylum vertebra?
Hollow dorsal nerve cord, extends into the brain anteriorly.
Internal skeletal cranium protects brain.
Notochord terminates at the cranium's base.
Head, trunk and post anal tail.
Well developed ventral heart.
Have pharyngeal slits.
What is a feature of advanced clades in subphylum vertebra?
Notochord is replaced by cartilaginous or bony vertebral column.
What does the notochord evolve into? What about paired fins and gills?
Notochord - vertebral column
Paired fins - limbs
Gills - lungs
What are fish?
Aquatic vertebra with gills.
What can be a fish?
Anything that isn't a fish.
If appendages are present on fish, what are they usually?
What is the skin of fish like?
Covered in scales.
What is the most diverse group of vertebrates?
Fish (jawed specifically).
What do fish dominate?
Fauna of aquatic environments.
What did tetrapods evolve from exactly?
Sarcopterygii - the rhipidistians.
What did all fish descend from?
Unknown free swimming protochordate.
What are agnatha?
What kind of body and skeleton do agnatha have?
Cylindrical body with cartilaginous skeleton.
What is the tail of agnatha like? Is it symmetrical?
Heterocercal tail, not symmetrical.
Do agnatha have paired fins? What about ventral fins? What are their fins in general like?
No paired fins, or ventral fins. Fins have a broad base.
What are the two classes of agnatha, and their common names?
Myxini - hagfish
Petromyzontida - lamprey
What is the water environment of myxini?
What do myxini feed on?
Dead or dying fish.
How are myxini adapted to feeding?
Attach to food using keratinised plates. Tear food using rapss. Ties a knot in its body for leverage.
Do myxini produce slime?
Do myxini have larva?
No, large eggs, but no larva.
Do myxini have osmoregulation?
What is the water environment of petromyzontida?
Marine or freshwater.
Where do all petromyzontida spawn?
Do petromyzontida have a larval stage?
Yes, called ammocoete larva.
What is the difference between the parasitic and non parasitic petromyzontida?
Parasitic - attach to fish via suckers.
Non-parasitic - do not eat after becoming adults, spawn then die.
What are the most diverse groups of vertebra?
What are the two classes of jawed fish, and are they cartilaginous or bony?
Chondrichthyes - cartilaginous
Osteichthyes - bony
What are the subclasses of chondrichthyes and common names?
Elasmobranchii - sharks/skates
Holocephali - chimaera/ratfish
What are most chondrichthyes?
Most are marine predators.
Do chondrichthyes have paired fins? What are their scales like?
Yes. They have placoid scales.
Do chondrichthyes have an operculum?
Where are the special sensory organs of chondrichthyes located?
Dorsal part of the head.
Do chondrichthyes have a lateral line system?
How do rays/skates prevent clogged gills?
Have large spiracles to prevent clogging.
What are the spines and tails of rays/skates like?
Have saw toothed spines and whiplike tail.
Are there electric rays?
Yes, they can have electric organs on the side of their head.
What are the tails of sharks like?
Asymmetrical heterocercal tail.
What happens to the vertebral column of sharks towards the tail?
Turns upwards and extends into the dorsal lobes of the tail.
What are the teeth of sharks like?
They have a replaceable row of teeth.
What are the jaws and teeth of subclass holocephali (chimaera) like?
No teeth, jaws have flat plates.
What are the spines of subclass holocephali (chimaera) like?
Erectine dorsal spine, can be poisonous.
What are the two classes of osteichthyes?
Do osteichthyes have an operculum?
Do osteichthyes have a swim bladder? What is the purpose of a swim bladder?
Yes they do. It is used for buoyancy.
What is the swim bladder associated with?
The digestive system, sometimes for oxygen uptake in some species.
What are sarcopterygii?
Lobe finned fish - lungfish.
What are the fins of sarcopterygii like?
Strong, muscular lobe like fins.
What gave rise to tetrapods?
What are the 2 subclasses of actinopterygii? Are the teleosts or non teleosts?
Chondrostei - cartilaginous, non-teleosts.
Neopterygii - bony, both teleost and non-teleost.
What is the most diverse class of fish?
What is the swim bladder an offshoot of in teleost ray finned fish?
What is the area before a fish's fin called?
How do teleost ray finned fish swim? What are the shapes of their fins?
Sickle shaped fins. Swim by thrusting tail fin. More efficient.
How do eels swim? Is it efficient? Why?
Thrust their body alternately. Force lost in lateral movement of the body.
What are the layers of fish skin?
Has an underlying dermis, with scales over it.
Epidermis covers the sclaes.
What can be found within the epidermis of fish, aside from scales?
What are placoid scales like? What fish have them?
Cartilaginous fish, resemble teeth, with dentin, pump cavity, and enamel. Have a basal plate.
What are genoid scales like? What fish have them?
Non-teleost fish, diamond shaped, also have rings.
What are cycloid scales like? What fish have them?
Teleost fish, uniform, have rings and are circular.
What are ctenoid scales like? What fish have them?
Teleost fish, spines at one end, ridged formation on the other.
Do sharks have a swim bladde?
What do sharks use to help with buoyancy?
Large liver, low density fat within. Floats in water.
How do sharks create lift?
Has plane-like pectoral fins, creates lift.
What must large sharks do to obtain enough oxygen?
Must continuously swim.
Do bony fish have swim bladders? What about pelagic fish? What are the exceptions, and how do they maintain buoyancy?
Yes. Absent in tuna, and bottom dwellers/abyssals. Maintain buoyancy by altering volume.
How do advanced teleosts conduct air exchange?
Highly vascularised, gas sectretes into the bladder at the gas gland.
Gas gland secretes lactic acid to cause oxygen release from haeme.
What is the structure of a gill like?
A sheet of filament, called a lamella.
What is the purpose of an operculum in fish?
Protects the gills, and creates water current across.
What kind of osmoregulators are freshwater fish? Name 4 lifestyle features of them to maintain water balance.
-Prevent water uptake and salt loss.
-Excess water pumped out in dilute urine.
-Salt abosrbing cells in gill epithelia.
What kind of osmoregulators are saltwater fish? Name 3 lifestyle features of them to maintain water balance.
-Has salt secreting cells called chloride cells on gill epithelia.
-Salt removed via concentrated urine.
What is meant by catadromous migration? What about anadromous migration?
Catadromous - spends majority of its life in freshwater, migrates to the sea.
Anadromous - spends majority of its life in oceans, migrates upstream to freshwater.
What two ways can be used to measure age in fish?
Growth measured by otoliths within the inner ear.
Aslso layers forming rings on scales.
What is the reproduction of teleost fish like? Where does fertilisation take place, and what is their development like?
Mainly dioecious. External fertilisation and oviparous development.
Whats distinct about mammals?
Have mammary glands, hence their name.
What kind of body covering do mammals have?
Whats distinct about the entegument of mammals?
Has sweat, scent, sebaceous and mammary glands.
What are diphyodont teeth?
Milk teeth, replaced later.
What are heterodont teeth?
Different types of teeth.
What are the jaws of mammals like?
Lower jaw is single dentary bone, allowing for efficient feeding.
What do mammals have that enables breathing while eating?
Secondary palates, seperating the nasal cavity from the buccal cavity.
What are the brain of mammals like?
Highly developed, with large cerebral cortex.
What is the advantage of a 4 chambered heart?
Allows higher pressure, and seperates oxygenated blood from deoxygenated blood.
What are the red blood cells of mammals like?
What is distinct about the diaphragm in mammals?
It divides the thorax from the abdomen.
True or false
Mammals are both homeothermic and endothermic.
True or false
Mammals have a cloaca.
False, it is only present in monotremes.
Where does fertilisation occur in mammals?
What is an advantage of embryonic development in utero for mammals?
Allows protection of the foetus.
What are the three membranes that a mammal foetus floats within?
What are young mammals nourished by?
What must something be to be a homeotherm?
What are the 3 major gorups of amniotes?
What is an anapsid skull like, and what does it belong to?
Solid skull - turtle and ancestors.
What is an synapsid skull like, and what does it belong to?
Pair of openings in the roof of the skull for jaw muscle attachments - mammals.
What is an diapsid skull like, and what does it belong to?
Two pairs of openings in the skull roof. Dinosaurs, reptiles and birds.
What skull type led to mammals?
What are hairs made of? What structures are also made of this?
Keratin, as are feathers, claws, nails, hooves, and horns.
Do mammals molt their hair?
Yes, during summer or winter.
What is the purpose of hair coverings in mammals?
Acts as camouflage.
What are true horns, and where are they found?
Found in cows/cattle, are sheaths of keratinised epidermis.
What are the antlers of deers lie?
Branched and are solid bone.
Where do deer antlers develop?
Beneath velvet, vascular skin.
Do deer shed their horns?
Do anteloped have bony or keratinised horns?
Keratin, but shed annually.
Do rhinos have bony or keratinised horns? Is it attached to their skulls?
Made of hairlike keratinised filaments, bbut not attached to skull.
What is the purpose of sweat glands?
Eccrine glands to cool skin.
What accumulates around mammary glands in humans?
Do monotremes have nipples?
No, only therian mammals do.
How do herbivores digest cellulose?
Have a caecum, where bacteria digest it.
What do ruminants have? What do they do with their food?
4 chambered stomach, and regurgitate food to mouth to rechew and swallow.
In terms of metabolism, what does smaller body size means? Why is this so?
Higher metabolism rate. Need to maintain body heat, but with smaller surface area to mass ratio, higher metabolism needed.
Whats the problem with migration?
How do bats fly?
Use echolocation, high frequency pulses, ultrasonic to humans. Large ears to pick up reflected sound.
What are the three major types of reproduction types in mammals? They form infraclasses, list them.
How do prototherians reproduce and develop?
Egg laying, and oviparous.
What are prototherians?
How do metatherians reproduce and develop?
Pouched viviparous mammals.
How do eutherians reproduce and develop?
What is an example of a monotreme? Do they all lay eggs?
Playpus, anteaters etc.
All lay eggs.
What are metatherians? What percentage are native to Australia? What state are they born? Where do they develop?
They are marsupials, 70% native to Australia.
They are born incomplete, develop in the mother's pouch.
What is the most diverse mammal group?
What is the difference between eutherians and metatherians?
Eutherians have prolonged placental growth in utero.
Where do the young eutherians develop? Are they born complete?
Develop in utero, are born complete, unlike metatherians.
Which develops more quickly, placental mammals or marsupials?
List the four types of mating systems.
Describe the promiscuous mating system.
Male makes little contribution. Mates with any receptive female.
Describe the monogamous mating system.
Male mates with only one female at a time, makes significant investment.
Describe the polygamous mating system.
Groups are dominated by one or more males, exclusive mating privileges with any receptive female.
Describe the polyandry mating system.
Female has several male mates simultaneously.
What is the most common mating system in mammals?
What are the jaws of carnivora like?
Hinged to close like scissors, posterior teeth meet before anterior. Can lock into place.
What are cetacea?
What are the hind limbs of cetacea like?
Embedded into the body wall.
What do cetacea use for steering and balance?