Lecture 8 RH - Fishes Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Lecture 8 RH - Fishes Deck (82)
1

How is the nerve chord arranged in subphylum vertebra?

Hollow dorsal nerve chord extended anteriorly into the brain

2

What protects the brain in subphylum vertebra?

The cranium

3

What is the variation of notochord destination in subphylum vertebrata?

Basal clades' notochord terminates at cranium

Advanced clades' notochord is replaced by cartilaginous or bony vertebral column

4

What are the anatomical features of subphylum vertebrata?

Head, trunk, and post-anal tail

No atrium

Well developed ventral heart

5

What are pharyngeal clefts and what happens to them in subphylum vertebrata?

Gill slits

They can only be seen during embryonic stages of development.

6

What is the destination of the notochord in vertebrates?

vertebral column

7

What does the nerve chord connect to directly?

The brain

8

What did limbs rise from?

paired fins

9

Where did lungs arise from?

gills

10

What is a fish by definition?

Aquatic vertebrate with gills.

All vertebrates that are not tetrapods

Appendages if present in the form of fins

Scaly skin

11

How many extant species of fish are expected to exist?

~28k species

12

What is the most diverse vertebrate grouping?

Fish

13

What is the dominant animal type in aquatic environments today?

Fish

14

Which fish group did tetrapods arise from?

Sarcopterygians

15

Where did fish come from?

Unknown free-swimming protochords

Earliest "fish-like" vertebrates were a paraphyletic assemblage of jawless agnathan

16

What are the anatomical features of agnatha?

Cylindrical body

Cartilaginous skeleton

Heterocercal tail (Not symmetrical)

No paired fins. Fins have a broad base

17

What are agnatha? Examples

Jawless fishes such as lamprey and hagfish

18

What is the class that hagfishes are a part of?

Class myxini

19

Where do hagfishes typically live?

Marine entirely

20

What do hagfish feed on?

Dead or dying fishes and marine invertebrates.

Scavengers and predators and feed on whale carcasses

21

How do hagfishes attach to food?

keratinized plates and rasps off tissue with tongue

Ties a knot for extra leverage

22

How do hagfishes maintain osmotic concentration in marine water?

Body fluid concentration maintained in osmotic balance with seawater

23

What do hagfishes feel like?

Very slimy

24

How do hagfishes reproduce?

Large eggs that don't hatch larvae

25

Why do hagfish tie themselves into a knot when hanging onto prey?

To maintain leverage

26

What class are lampreys?

Petromyzontida

27

Where do lampreys typically live?

Marine and freshwater forms

All species spawn in freshwater streams

Ammocoeote larva burrows in mud for 3-7 years

28

How do parasitic lampreys attach to other fish?

using sucker-like mouth

29

How do non-parasitic lampreys eat?

They don't eat after emerging as adults from the mud and spawn before dying.

30

What is the most diverse group of vertebrates?

Jawed fishes

31

What are the 2 classes of jawed fishes?

Chondrichtyes (cartilaginous fishes)

Osteichthyes (bony fishes)

32

What are the types of Chondrichtyes?

Elasmobranchs: Skates, rays, and sharks

Holocephali: Chimaeras (ratfishes)

33

What are the features of chondrichthyes?

Most are marine predators

Flexible cartilaginous skeleton

Paired fins

Placoid scales

Special electrosensory organs on dorsal part of head and lateral line system

34

Do chondrichthyes have an operculum?

No

35

How do skates and rays adapt to having no operculum and living on the sea bed?

Large spiracles prevent clogging of gills

36

Why was Steve Irwin's death possible?

Stingrays have saw-toothed spines on their whip-like tail

37

How do electric rays electrocute people?

Electric organs on the side of their head

38

What is the nutrition habits of sharks?

They are predators

39

Where does the vertebral column end in sharks?

Asymmetrical heterocercal tail-vertebral column turns upwards and extends into dorsal lobe of tail

40

What is interesting about shark teeth?

Replaceable very easily

41

What are chimaeras?

Fish that have no teeth and instead have jaws with flat plates connected to them

42

How are the stomach an intestine related in ratfish (holocephali)?

Stomach infused with their intestine

43

What is holocephali spines like in appearance?

Erectile, dorsal spine, it is sometimes poisonous

44

What are osteichthyes?

Bony fish

45

What are the 2 classes of Osteichthyes?

Sarcopterygii

Actinopterygii

46

What are the features of osteichthyes?

Skeleton is hardened with calcium salts = bronyl

Sim bladder present for buoyancy. Often associated with digestive system and used for oxygen uptake

47

Do osteichythyes have an operculum?

Yes

48

How can sarcopterygii and actinopterygii be differentiated from each other?

sarcopterygii have very strong muscular, lobe like fins

49

How many extant species of sarcopterygii are there?

8 extant

50

Which species of sarcopterygii gave rise to tetrapods?

Rhipidistians

51

Can Australian lungfish survive outside of the water?

Not for long

52

Can protopterus (African) and Lepidosiren (South American) lungfish survive outside of the water?

They can survive for longer than Australian (Neoceratodus) lungfish.

53

Are lungfish related to tetrapods?

Yes they are the closest living relatives to tetrapods but not direct ancestors

54

Which lungfish are from Australia?

Neoceratodus

55

Which lungfish are from Africa?

Protopterus

56

Which lungfish are from South America?

Lepidosiren

57

What are the subclasses of class actinopterygii?

Chondrostei (cartilaginous, non-teleost) such as sturgeons

Neopterygii (bony, non-teleost and teleost fishes)

58

Which fish are the ray-finned fishes?

Actinopterygii

59

Where is the swim bladder located relative to the digestive system?

dorsal

60

Where are the kidneys located relative to the digestive system?

dorsal

61

What are the components of the tail?

Area right before the caudal fin is known as the peduncle and is narrow and stiff which ends into a sickle shaped caudal fin.

62

What is the function of myomeres?

Important for locomotion

63

How do fish generally move?

tail pushes against water and reactive force pushes it forward.

*Eel loses force due to lateral movement

64

What are the components of the scales of a fish?

Bony part

Mucous gland covers bony part

Epidermis covers mucous glands

Dermis is deep to all other structures

65

What are the scale types seen in fishes?

Placoid scales in cartilaginous fishes. very similar to teeth

Genoid scales (diamond shaped) in non-teleost bony fishes

Cycloid scales (very circular and uniform) and ctenoid scales in teleost fish

66

What is the function of the swim bladder?

It is a large liver with lipid squalene which has a low density (0.86) this is important to prevent sinking when not swimming

67

Do sharks have a swim bladder?

No

68

What is the consequence of lacking a swim bladder?

Movement is more dependent on heterocercal tail and movement needs to be maintained in order to prevent sinking

69

What are the variations in swim bladder arrangement?

Bony fish have gas filled swim bladder

Pelagic fish have one but tuna, abyssal fish, and bottom dwellers lack a swim bladder

70

How do teleosts maintain the amount of air in the swim bladder?

pneumatic duct connects swim bladder with oesophagus

In more advanced teleosts there is no duct and air is exchanged with gases in blood. As a result it is highly vascularized and gas is secreted into bladder via gas gland.

Gas gland makes blood more acidic via lactic acid

71

What are the sheets of filaments of the gills called?

lamellae

72

What type of regulators are freshwater fish?

hyperosmotic regulators

73

How do freshwater fish regulate their internal osmolarity?

They don't drink water

They produce dilute urine

They prevent water uptake and salt loss

Epithelium of gill contains salt absorbing cells

74

How do marine fish regulate their internal environment?

Hypoosmotic

Salt secreting cells in the gills (chloride cells)

Salt also voided in faeces

Drink seawater

75

What does catadramous mean?

Fish that spend the majority of their life in freshwater and then migrate to sea to spawn

76

What is an example of catadramous?

Freshwater Eel

77

What does anadramous mean?

Spend majority of life in the ocean, migrate upriver to freshwater to spawn

78

What is an example of an andramous fish?

salmon

79

How is age determined in fish?

Growth is measured by otolith body structure in the inner ear.

Layers of calcium carbonate and gelatinous matrix form rings

80

Are teleosts mono or dioecious?

Mainly dioecious with external development and fertilization

81

Do fish eggs develop internally or externally?

most develop externally with the exception of few fish that bear live young or incubate their eggs

82

What does oviviparous?

Bearing live young