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Flashcards in Lecture 9 Deck (53)
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1

What is innate immunity induced by?

The triggering of pattern recognition molecules which recognize PAMPs
There are four major classes including soluble receptors, membrane bound receptors and two types of intracellular receptors

2

What are the features of PAMPs?

They are conserved,
essential to survival, common to entire classes of microbes,
complex and unique 3D molecular structure,
typically carbohydrates and lipids rather than proteins, often have a repetitive structure

3

What are the secreted pattern recognition molecules?

These are typically C type lectins and include mannose binding lectin, C- reactive protein and lipid binding protein

4

What is the ligand and function of mannose binding lectin?

This secreted pattern recognition molecule has a C-type lectin domain and recognises terminal mannose residues leading to the activation the lectin pathway of complement

5

What is the ligand and function of C-reactive protein?

This secreted pattern recognition molecule has a pentraxins protein domain and recognizes phosphorylcholine –present in bacterial and fungal membranes- leading to opsonisation and activation of the classical pathway of complement

6

What is the ligand and function of lipid binding protein?

This secreted pattern recognition molecule has a lipid transfer protein family protein domain and recognises lipopolysaccharide leading to lipopolysaccharide recognition

7

What are the membrane pattern recognition receptors?

Toll like receptors, CD14, Macrophage mannose receptor, Macrophage scavenging receptor, MACRO

8

What is the ligand and function of toll like receptors?

These membrane bound pattern recognitions receptor have leucine rich repeat protein domains and recognize multiple ligands, there are 12 in total which all lead to activation of MyD88 adaptor protein which leads to activation of the NFkB transcription factor

9

What is the ligand and function of CD14?

This membrane bound pattern recognition receptor has a leucine rich repeat family protein domain and recognises lipopolysaccharide and acts as a co-receptor for TLR recognition of LPS

10

What is the ligand and function of Macrophage mannose receptor?

This membrane bound pattern recognition receptor has a C-type lectin protein domain and recognizes terminal mannose residues leading to phagocytosis

11

What is the ligand and function of macrophage scavenging receptor?

This membrane bound pattern recognition receptor has a cysteine rich protein domain and recognizes many ligands including LPS, dsRNA, oxidised LDL, anionic polymers recognition of all these ligands results in phagocytosis, LPS clearance and lipid homeostasis

12

What is the ligand and function of MARCO?

This membrane bound pattern recognition receptor has a cysteine rich protein domain and recognizes bacterial cell walls leading to phagocytosis

13

What are the intracellular pattern recognition receptors?

NOD, NALPs, RLR and DNA sensors these all have the common function of activation of NFkB, MAP kinases, type 1 IFN, caspase 3 activation and IL-1Beta as well as causing apoptosis in virally infected cells

14

What is the ligand of NOD?

These intracellular pattern recognition receptors have a LRR domain a NOD (nucleotide binding) domain and a CARD (caspase recruitment) domain allowing them to sense microbial products such as peptidoglycans

15

What is the ligand of NALPs

These intracellular pattern recognition receptors are a NActh LRR proteins containing an LRR domain, a NOD domain and a PYD (pyrin) domain
These sense cellular damage and stress binding to lots of compounds such as Alum (Al(OH)3) and uric acid seen in gout and it forms in the inflammasome

16

What is the ligand of RLR?

This intracellular pattern recognition receptor has a RIG-1, CARD, Helicase, RNA-PKR-RNA binding and kinase domains as well as MDA5-CARD domains and LGP2
These sense nucleic acids in the cytoplasm binding to viral and bacterial DNA

17

What is the ligand of DNA sensors?

DAI has DNA binding domains and AIM2 which has PYD and DNA binding domain which function as DNA sensors

18

What are PAMPs commonly found on viruses?

Glycoprotein, DNA and RNA

19

What are PAMPs commonly found on gram positive bacteria?

DNA, Lipoprotein, peptidoglycan and lipotechtoic acid

20

What are PAMPs commonly found on gram negative bacteria?

DNA, Porin, peptidoglycan, lipopolysaccharide and flagellin

21

What are PAMPs commonly found on fungi?

Zymosan, Mannan and beta glycan

22

What are PAMPs commonly found on protozoa?

DNA and GPI anchors (glycolipids)

23

What are the three signals required for effective memory response by the immune system?

Detection of the danger followed by detection of the antigen which is in turn followed by costimulation

24

What is the stress response?

This is simply a response to danger where the key component is the rapid production of a number of pro-inflammatory cytokines like IL-1, TNFalpha, IL-6, IL-8 and IL-12

25

How can the stress response be harmful?

If some of the cytokines are produced in larger amounts then the body can have an adverse reaction
At a mild level the brain is affected and the body temperature is raised to produce fever this can be a useful systemic reaction which increases our ability to fight infection however too much will result in systemic shock which can potentially be fatal

26

What is the role of the monocyte/macrophage in the stress response/

This cell is the primary initiator of this response as this is the primitive sensing cell in higher vertbrates
Many of the responses controlled by this cell are triggered by the central signalling pathway regulated by NFkB

27

What is the most important PAMP for the triggering of TNFalpha?

Bacterial lipopolysaccharide, this is an extremely complex molecule that is produced by most gram negative bacteria
It is composed of lipid A chain attached to a branched chain complex carbohydrate with the lipid potion be the essential component of activation of the stress response

28

What are toll like receptors?

These are pattern recognition receptors that are highly conserved seen in both plants and animals
The primate toll family has 9 members each of which recognize different ligands leading to the activation of the NFkB pathway leading to TNFalpha production

29

What are the positive effects of TNFalpha?

Increasing phagocytosis
Raising body temperature
Inducing acute-phase response proteins from the liver
Inducing inflammatory response mechanisms and vascular responses
Stimulates maturation of dendritic cells and migration to lymph nodes
Increases lymphocyte migration site
Increase in platelet adhesion to blood vessel
Containment of infection to the local site
Pain and tenderness

30

What are the negative effects of TNFalpha?

Oedema
Neutropenia (loss of neutrophils from blood)
Change in blood volume through its effects on the central nervous system
Vascular leakage and hypotension
Elevated temperatures
Organ failure
Muscle wasting or cachexia (a problem with cancer patients)
Septic shock
Death