What is herpetology?
-The study of reptiles and amphibians -Greek herpeton = to creep
What class and three orders are the amphibians classed in?
-Class Amphibia -Three orders: 1.Order Anura-frogs and toads 2.Order Urodela -salamanders 3. Order Gymnophiona caecilians (legless) - Only one order occurs in Australia: Order Anura
What is the frog life cycle like?
What are the environmental constraints on frog distribution in Australia?
-Environmental constraints on frog distributions: - require standing water for eggs or tadpoles - “wet-skinned” adults require humid microsites - adults often nocturnally active - ectotherms – do best in warm environments
How many families does the order Anura have and how many of those are in Australia?
-order anura =23 families -4 native to Australia a) Myobatrachidae=southern frogs b) Hylidae= tree frogs c)Microhylidae= narrow-mouthed frogs d) Ranidae=true frogs -1 introduced species a) Bufonidae= toads
How many species and genera do the Myobatrachidae have in Australia?
-blue is where they are
How many species and genera do the Hylidae have in Australia?
-light green is where they are
How many species and genera do the Microhylidae have in Australia?
-pink is where they are
How many species and genera do the Ranidae have in Australia?
-yellow is where they are
What are the characteristics of the family Miobatrachidae?
-only in Australia -extensive adaptive radiation (20 genera and 112 species) -wide range of morphological, ecological and developmental specialisations -found in most of Australia, have high endemism
What is the burrowing frog example of Miobatrachidae frogs?
1.burrowing species, found in Derby/Broome area, Uperolaia aspera, have metatarsal tubercles used in excavation
What is the problem with Corroboree?
-Critically endangered species - 218 individuals found in 1999 survey, 64 in 2004 survey, 15 in 2013 and no breeding - global warming and especially chytrid fungus pose major threats -lives in bogs
What are the tree living species of Miobatrachidae frogs?
-Barred frogs (Mixophytes) inhabit rainforest streams -large active frogs of wet eastern forests -require unlogged forests near clean streams
What family do the painted and holy cross frogs belong to?
What is the turtle frog?
-looks like a turtle -Miobatrachidae frog
What is the Sunset frog?
-Miobatrachidae frog --discovered in 1994! - lives in peat swamps near Albany - highly endangered - fragmented range covering 305 km2 and inhabiting an area of only 135 ha
What is the distribution of family Hylidae?
-worldwide, but most are in Australia and S. America -widespread and successful in Australia -3 genera and 73 species -wide range of morphological and ecological specialisations -include the typical tree frogs, brown tree frog, green tree frog (litoria...) (Giant tree frog= largest Hylid in the world= lives in the Daintree)
What is a burrowing species of the Hylidae family?
-genus Cyclorana -the water holding forgs -mostly underground until heavy rains occur
What are the frogs in the aurea complex?
-Hylidae -large, aggressive carnivores
What is the frog named after Murray Littlejohn?
-named after this guy, worked -Littlejohn's tree forg -Litoria littlejohni
What is special about the frog Nyctimystes dayi?
- laced lower eyelid - vertical pupil - most species in New Guinea -Hylidae
What is the distribution of the family Micorhylidae?
-very diverse in S. AMerica, Africa and Southeast Asiab(67 genera worldwide) -in Australia restricted to the far north -2 genera and 19 species in QLD and NT -Those in Australia have large eggs, terrestrial nests attended by male, direct development
What is the diversity and endemism of Microhylid frogs?
What is the example of Microhylidae frog?
-Cophixalus frogs in Queensland, live in the leaf-litter of rainforest, often on mountaintops -very little is known about these frogs -if temp increases by 1C they will lose their habitat
What is characteristic of the hatchlings of Microhylidae frogs?
very small, like a few millimeters
What is the distribution of Ranidae frogs?
-"true frogs" -common everywhere else except Australia -1 genus and 1 species on Cape York Peninsula and eastern NT -Relatively recent arrival, in geological terms -males have paire vocal sacs
What is the only Australian Ranid frog?
-Rana daemeli -wood frog -large, agile, predaceous, ground-dwelling -have distinct dorso-lateral folds -unique among Australian frogs in having paired vocal sacs