Lecture 9- Amphibians 1 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Lecture 9- Amphibians 1 Deck (27)
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What is herpetology?

-The study of reptiles and amphibians -Greek herpeton = to creep


What class and three orders are the amphibians classed in?

-Class Amphibia -Three orders: 1.Order Anura-frogs and toads 2.Order Urodela -salamanders 3. Order Gymnophiona caecilians (legless) - Only one order occurs in Australia: Order Anura


What is the frog life cycle like?



What are the environmental constraints on frog distribution in Australia?

-Environmental constraints on frog distributions: - require standing water for eggs or tadpoles - “wet-skinned” adults require humid microsites - adults often nocturnally active - ectotherms – do best in warm environments


How many families does the order Anura have and how many of those are in Australia?

-order anura =23 families -4 native to Australia a) Myobatrachidae=southern frogs b) Hylidae= tree frogs c)Microhylidae= narrow-mouthed frogs d) Ranidae=true frogs -1 introduced species a) Bufonidae= toads


How many species and genera do the Myobatrachidae have in Australia?

-blue is where they are


How many species and genera do the Hylidae have in Australia?

-light green is where they are


How many species and genera do the Microhylidae have in Australia?

-pink is where they are


How many species and genera do the Ranidae have in Australia?

-yellow is where they are


What are the characteristics of the family Miobatrachidae?

-only in Australia -extensive adaptive radiation (20 genera and 112 species) -wide range of morphological, ecological and developmental specialisations -found in most of Australia, have high endemism


What is the burrowing frog example of Miobatrachidae frogs?

1.burrowing species, found in Derby/Broome area, Uperolaia aspera, have metatarsal tubercles used in excavation


What is the problem with Corroboree?

-Critically endangered species - 218 individuals found in 1999 survey, 64 in 2004 survey, 15 in 2013 and no breeding - global warming and especially chytrid fungus pose major threats -lives in bogs


What are the tree living species of Miobatrachidae frogs?

-Barred frogs (Mixophytes) inhabit rainforest streams -large active frogs of wet eastern forests -require unlogged forests near clean streams


What family do the painted and holy cross frogs belong to?

-Miobatrachidae -cute!


What is the turtle frog?

-looks like a turtle -Miobatrachidae frog


What is the Sunset frog?

-Miobatrachidae frog --discovered in 1994! - lives in peat swamps near Albany - highly endangered - fragmented range covering 305 km2 and inhabiting an area of only 135 ha


What is the distribution of family Hylidae?

-worldwide, but most are in Australia and S. America -widespread and successful in Australia -3 genera and 73 species -wide range of morphological and ecological specialisations -include the typical tree frogs, brown tree frog, green tree frog (litoria...) (Giant tree frog= largest Hylid in the world= lives in the Daintree)


What is a burrowing species of the Hylidae family?

-genus Cyclorana -the water holding forgs -mostly underground until heavy rains occur


What are the frogs in the aurea complex?

-Hylidae -large, aggressive carnivores


What is the frog named after Murray Littlejohn?

-named after this guy, worked -Littlejohn's tree forg -Litoria littlejohni


What is special about the frog Nyctimystes dayi?

- laced lower eyelid - vertical pupil - most species in New Guinea -Hylidae


What is the distribution of the family Micorhylidae?

-very diverse in S. AMerica, Africa and Southeast Asiab(67 genera worldwide) -in Australia restricted to the far north -2 genera and 19 species in QLD and NT -Those in Australia have large eggs, terrestrial nests attended by male, direct development


What is the diversity and endemism of Microhylid frogs?



What is the example of Microhylidae frog?

-Cophixalus frogs in Queensland, live in the leaf-litter of rainforest, often on mountaintops -very little is known about these frogs -if temp increases by 1C they will lose their habitat


What is characteristic of the hatchlings of Microhylidae frogs?

very small, like a few millimeters


What is the distribution of Ranidae frogs?

-"true frogs" -common everywhere else except Australia -1 genus and 1 species on Cape York Peninsula and eastern NT -Relatively recent arrival, in geological terms -males have paire vocal sacs


What is the only Australian Ranid frog?

-Rana daemeli -wood frog -large, agile, predaceous, ground-dwelling -have distinct dorso-lateral folds -unique among Australian frogs in having paired vocal sacs