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Flashcards in lecture 9 brainstem Deck (37)
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1

what 2 types of tracts does the brain stem carry?

-ascending sensory tracts- dorsally located
-descending motor tracts- ventrally located

2

what 6 descending tracts originate in the brain stem?

-tectospinal
-rubrospinal
-retciulospianal
-vestibulospinal
-ceruleospinal
-raphespinal

3

what two things are located on the brainstem?

cranial nerve nuclei and colliculi

4

what is the ventral division of the brainstem?

basilar- structures related to motor activity

5

what is the dorsal division of stem proper?

tegmentum- structure related to sensory input

6

what is the additional dorsal layer of the brainstem?

tectum- structures related to orienting the auditory and visual input

7

what is the function of the medulla?

coordination of the head/ neck movement, breathing, swallowing, HR

8

what 5 structures does the medulla contain?

-pyramids: descending motor tracts; pyramidal decussation- lateral corticospinal tract
-olives: inferior olivary nucleus: projections to cerebellum and spinal cord (climbing fibers)
-cranial nuclei: 5,7-10,12
-cuneate and gracilis tubercles
-ascending tracts

9

What is the function of the basilar portion of the pons?

descending tracts from cortex to pons and spinal levels (corticospinal tracts)

10

what is the function of the tegmentum portion of the pons?

ascending sensory tracts, reticular formation, ANS pathways, sensory CN nuclei 5,6,7, medial longitudinal fasciculas tract for coordination of eye and head

11

what is the function of the tectum?

posterior to the tegmentum at midbrain level controlling eye muscles and head orientation to sight and sounds
-pretectal area-aids in pain control; located between the colliculi and cerebral aqueduct
-superior and inferior colliculi

12

what type of CN nuclei is VIII?

special for sensory and motor- located in the pons

13

what CN has a somatic function for sensory input?

V

14

what 3 CN have a visceral function for sensory input?

VII, IX, X

15

what 4 CN are motor and have visceral function?

III, VII, IX, X

16

what 5 CN are motor and have brachial functions (swallowing, speech production)

V, VII, IX, X,XI

17

what 4 CN are motor and have somatic function (muscle)?

III, IV,VI, XII

18

what are the 3 functions of the reticular formation?

-integrates sensory and cortical info
-regulates motor and autonomic functions and consciousness
-modulates ascending pain with defending influences

19

where is dopamine located and what is its function?

Ventral tegmental nuclei
-decision making, feeling or pleasure and addiction

20

where is acetylcholine located and what is its function?

Pedunculopontine
-influences movement vis basal ganglia, vestibular and recticulospinal connections

21

where is serotonin located and what is its function?

raphe nuclei
-mood, movement modulator, pain inhibition, cardiovascular regulation

22

where is norepinephrine located and what is its function?

locus ceruleus
-attention/ sleep regulation, pain inhibition

23

where are norepinephrine and epinephrine located and what is the function?

medial reticular area
-autonomic regulation of respiration, viscera, cardiovascular response

24

what structure is located posterior to the cerebral peduncles?

substantia nigra

25

what are the 4 components of the mid brain tegmentum?

-superior cerebellar peduncles
-red nucleus- rubrospinal tract
-preiaquductal gray around the cerebral aqueduct: pain inhibition, fight and flight reactions
-CN III-IV

26

what are the 2 components of the midbrain tectum?

-pretectal- pupillary reflexes
-colliculi- superior (reflexive eye movement), inferior (coordinates movement toward sound)

27

what are the 3 functions of the cerebellum?

-coordination of movement
-motor planning
-attention shifting

28

if there is a brainstem lesion above the cuneate and gracilis nuclei is the damage contralateral or ipsilateral? below?

above- contralateral
below- ipsilateral

29

what is one cause of an UMN lesion?

hypertonicity

30

what is one cause of a LMN lesion?

hypo- reflexia, muscle flaccidity

31

an altered state of consciousness would be indicative of a lesion where?

brainstem or cerebrum
-reticular formation damage results in loss of consciousness, level depends on the extent of damage

32

tumors that press on the brainstem can cause what?

-disrupt homeostasis
-nasuea
-headache
-CN impairments or hydrocphalus

33

tumors in the cerebellum can cause what?

ataxia

34

what is dysphagia?

impaired swallowing

35

what is dysarthria?

impaired speaking

36

what is diplopia?

double vision- lack of coordination of CN 3,4,6; tectal nuclei could be damaged

37

what is dysmetria?

over shooting distance