Lecture 9 Sugars Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Lecture 9 Sugars Deck (37):
1

Is natural always good for you?

No, there are harmful natural substances

2

Chemicals

exist in our food, there are good and bad kinds, and different safe amounts to consume

3

Essential nutrients, toxic levels

at some point after consuming a certain amount there is no more nutritional value, at another point of curve there is a negative effect after consuming to much

4

Carbohydrates

sugar, complex xarbohydrates

5

Marcronutriients

bulk of our diet
most abundant organic molecule
initial source of ALL FOOD
Provide:
1. Energy
2.Carbon (to make other things)
3. Fiber (no energy), cannot digest, slows down digestion, feed probiotics in intestines
4. Sometimes taste
-Cyclized, sometimes drawn in a straight line

6

Carbohydrates chemistry

Carbon with multiple water
C#(H2O)#

7

Sugar Nomenclature

Chemically sugars can be given suffix "-ose"
Glucose, galactose, fructose
Classified according to the number of carbon atoms
-Trioses, tetroses, pentoses, hexoses
Most food sugars are or are made of hexoses

8

Polymeres

linking chemicals together
ex:Lactose= galactose + glucose
Sucrose(saccharose) = glucose+ fructose

9

Sucrose

Disaccharide: two sugars
Glucose+fructose
Also called:
1. Dextrose and levulose
2. Grape sugar and fruit sugar

10

How is sugar made?

Various degrees or refining from(listed in increased processing downward)
Molasses
Raw Sugar
Brown Sugar
White sugar

11

Molasses

concentrate juices sugar, bearing plants
contains substances other than simple sugars
various grades and darkness

12

Molasses, concentrated juices from sugar-bearing plants

Describe process:
1. Open kettle
2. Centrifugal
Describe use:
1. usable
2. biofuel

13

Raw Sugar

The first crystallization of sugar from boiling down sugar cane extract

14

Refined Sugar

The history of the modern world was vastly influenced by the spice trade and the sugar trades

15

White table sugar

sucrose
only taste is sweetness
source of nutritive energy
-to get white sugar you boil over and over

16

History of Sugar

"Triangular Trade"- never sail an empty ship
1700s, 1800s: things that were traded
sugar
rum
slaves: went from Africa to the Caribbean to harvest sugar

17

Corn Syrup

Found in soft drinks
cheaper to produce than table sugar
Made from hydrolysis of acids or enzymes
less sweet than sucrose
hygroscopic
mixture of polymers and fragments

18

Hydolysis

the process of splitting a molecule apart and adding a water molecule to the product
-Partial hydrolysis-->
1. glucose
2. maltose
3. Dextrin's (long chains)

19

Corn Syrup- HFCS

Ordinary corn syrup can be treated with enzymes to produce:
High Fructose Corn Syrups
Sweeter than "regular" corn syrups
Cheaper product than sucrose, using corn to produce biofuel has increased the price of corn (negative for cows and chickens who eat corn)

20

Enzymes nomenclature

Enzymes can be given the suffix "-ase"
example: lipase

21

Honey

Sucrose from plants is converted from a disaccharide to two monosaccharides by the enzyme "invertase"
Same set of chemicals found in honey as in other sugars
53% of sugar in honey is fructose about the same as HFCS
Honey also contains:
Pollen
Waxes
Acids

22

Carbohydrates- Honey

Concern about honey being a vector for bacterium
-Babies should not be fed it

23

Maple Syrup

Product of the Trees
Flavor produced by "boiling down"
~2/3 sugar, 1/3 water and the rest impurities

24

Sugar Alcohols

Prepared by hydrogenating simple sugars
Many sugar alcohols exist naturally in nature

25

Hydrogenating

process of adding hydrogen to molecules
different from hydrolysis

26

Xylitol

5 carbon sugar alcohol
not regulated by insulin
equally as sweet as sucrose
in gum

27

Alternative sweetners

low calories but does not mean better for you, or a good way for weight control

28

Why is their a correlation between AS and Obesity

artificial sugars do not make you feel full and therefore you crave more

29

Approved low calorie sugars

Acesulfame potassium
Aspartame
Neotame
Saccharin
Sucralose

30

Aspartame

NutraSweet
natural amino acid (aspartaic acid)

31

Neotame

new sweetener approved in 2002 in USA
6000x sweetness of sucrose
Phenylalanine is not released

32

Saccharin

one commercial name is "Sweet N Low"
Pink package marketed for women drinking coffee
300x sweetness of sucrose
Until 2000, the FDA considered it a carcinogen

33

Sucralose

A trade name is Splenda
600x sweeter than sugar
FDA approved it as a tabletop sweetener in 1998
Can not be digested and therefore has no calories

34

Alitame

not approved yet

35

Cyclamates

Ca+ or Na+ salts of cyclohexane sulfamic acid
30x sweetness of sucrose
1963- Coca-cola marketed the first sugar free soda as "tab"
1970's: Politic factors conspired to have it declared as a carcinogen, used everywhere but the US and UK

36

How pure is refined sugar?

>99%

37

Sucrose is a disaccharide composed of

glucose and fructose