Lecture: Lower Limb 2: The Knee Joint Flashcards Preview

C&M Term 2 > Lecture: Lower Limb 2: The Knee Joint > Flashcards

Flashcards in Lecture: Lower Limb 2: The Knee Joint Deck (18):
1

Which articulations are there at the knee joint?

2 femorotibial (medial and lateral)
1 femoropatellar

fibula not associated with the knee joint

2

what movements are possible at he knee joint?

Extension
Flexion
Medial/Lateral rotation (when knee flexed at 90 degrees)

3

What happens as the knee extends?

as it approaches full extension, femur undergoes a few degrees of medial rotation of the tibia
locks the knee in place
unlocked by the popliteus muscle

4

what increases congruency at the tibial plateau

2 c-shaped wedges of fibrocartilage - the medial and lateral menisci

5

functions of the menicsci?

increase joint congruency
even distribution of weight
shock absorbtion
assist in the locking mechanism
external edges attach to fibrous capsule of the joint

6

How do meniscal tears arise and what is the consequence?

common sports/degenerative injury

displaced cartilage can become trapped during knee movements
can be painful/result in knee locking
damage is associated with osteoarthritis

7

What features contribute to the stability of the knee joint?

Intra-articular ligaments
extra-articular ligaments
the surrounding muscles

8

Describe the posterior cruciate ligament (PCL)

attaches to posterior intercondylar region of tibia and ascends supero-anteriorly to insert on medial femoral condyle
prevents posterior dislocation of tibia on femur
prevents hyperflexion
stronger one
supports weight walking downhill

9

Describe the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL)

attaches to anterior intercondylar region of tibia and ascends supero-posteriorly to attach to lateral femoral condyle
prevents anterior displacement of tibia on femur
prevents hyperextension
weaker one

10

Describe the Tibial (medial) collateral ligament

attached to medial meniscus
prevents abduction of leg at knee

11

Describe the Fibular (lateral) collateral ligament

NOT attached to lateral meniscus
prevents adduction of leg at knee

12

what is the unhappy triad of knee injury?

Torn ACL
Torn Medial Meniscus
Torn Tibial (medial) collateral ligament

13

What typically causes the unhappy triad knee injury?

Excessive lateral twisting of flexed knee
or blow to lateral side of extended knee

14

Which muscles are the main stabilisers of the knee?

Quadriceps
Hamstrings
Sartorius
Gracilis
Iliotibial tract

15

Where are the bursae of the knee located?

Pre-patellar bursae - superficial to knee
Deep and superficial infrapatellar bursae - just inferior to knee

16

common injuries to the knee joint?

bony fractures of any of the 3 bones involved
meniscal tears
ligamentous tears
dislocations of the patella or even whole knee joint

17

Why are patellar dislocations more common in females than males?

Greater angle of femur due to wider, shallower hips
greater Q-angle
full of quads more horizontal

18

Describe abnormal alignment issues of the knee

Bow-Leg - tibia adducted w.r.t femur
Knock-knee - tibia abducted w.r.t femur