Lower Limb 5: The Foot Flashcards Preview

C&M Term 2 > Lower Limb 5: The Foot > Flashcards

Flashcards in Lower Limb 5: The Foot Deck (28):
1

Describe the osteology of the foot

7 Tarsals (Talus, Calcaneus, Cuboid, Navicular, Cuneiform x3)
5 Metatarsals
5 Phalanges (x3)

2

What movements are possible at the ankle joint?

Dorsiflexion
Plantarflexion
Inversion
Eversion

3

Name the ligaments that strengthen the ankle joint

6 ligaments:
Posterior Tibiotalar
Posterior Talofibular
Posterior Tibiofibular
Calcaneofibular
Tibulocalcaneal
Deltoid Ligament

4

What joints are present at the foot and which bones are involved?

Subtalar: Talus and calcaneus

Transverse talar: - calcaneus and cuboid
- navicular and talus

5

What provides passive support to the longitudinal arch of the foot?

Plantar aponeurosis
Plantar ligaments - short plantar, long plantar, calcaneonavicular

6

What provides active support to the longitudinal arch of the foot?

small intrinsic muscles and FHL, FDL

7

What provides passive support to the transverse arch of the foot?

shape of the bones
wedge shaped cuneiforms

8

What provides active support to the transverse arch of the foot?

fibularis longus + tibialis posterior tendons

9

What is pes planus?

Flat feet: due to loose/degenerative ligaments
may lead to infero-medial displacement of talus

10

What is located on the dorsum of the foot?

2 Muscles:
Extensor Hallucis Brevis
Extensor Digitorum Brevis

+ dorsalis pedis artery

11

What is the common origin of the intrinsic extensors of the foot?

Superolateral surface of calcaneus
talocalcaneal ligament

12

What is the innervation of the intrinsic extensors of the foot?

Deep fibular nerve L4, L5, S1

13

Where does extensor hallucis brevis insert?

Base of proximal phalanx of big toe

14

Where does extensor digitorum brevis insert?

Lateral sides of tendons of EDL of toes 2-4

15

At what joint do EHB and EDB extend the toes?

Metatarsophalangeal joint

16

What nerve innervates most of the skin of the dorsum of the foot?

Superficial Fibular Nerve

17

Which nerves are involved in the innervation of the foot?

Deep fibular
Superficial fibular
Sural nerve (lateral side)
Saphenous nerve (medial side)

18

What muscles are located in the first layer of the plantar compartment?

Flexor Digitorum Brevis
Abductor Hallucis
Abductor Digiti Minimi
This layer is the most superficial to the sole

19

What is the common origin of the muscles in the 1st layer of the plantar foot?

Calcaneal tuberosity

20

What is the insertion of flexor digitorum brevis?

Middle phalanges of toes 2-4

21

What is the insertion of Abductor Digiti Minimi and of Abductor Hallucis?

ADM: lateral proximal phalanx of little toe

AH: medial proximal phalanx of big toe

22

What is the purpose of the plantar aponeurosis?

Passive support to the longitudinal arches of the foot
protect structures in the sole of the foot

23

What muscles and tendons are in the second layer of the plantar foot?

2 muscles, 2 tendons:

Lumbricals
Quadratus Plantae

Tendon of Flexor Hallucis Longus
Tendon of Flexor Digitorum Longus

24

What is the origin and insertion of quadratus plantae?

Origin: medial surface of calcaneus and lateral calcaneal tuberosity

Insertion: lateral side of tendon of flexor digitorum longus (attaches to toe tendon)

25

What muscles are in the third layer of the plantar foot?

Flexor Hallucis Brevis
Flexor Digiti Minimi Brevis
Adductor Hallucis (transverse and oblique head)

26

What muscles are found in the fourth (deepest) layer of the plantar foot?

The Dorsal and Plantar Interossei

3 PLANTAR - PAD - Palmar ADduct
4 DORSAL - DAB - Dorsal ABduct

27

Describe the formation of the deep plantar arch?

Anterior Tibial enters foot >> Dorsalis Pedis Artery
meanwhile, Posterior Tibial enters from post compartment of the leg

Post Tibial divides into Lateral and Medial Plantar Arteries

Dorsalis Pedis anastomoses with the Lateral Plantar Artery to form the Deep Plantar Arch

28

Which nerves contribute to the innervation of the sole of the foot?

Medial Plantar - most, toes 1-3.5, medial sole
Lateral Plantar - toes 3.5-5, lateral sole,
Saphenous nerve - postero-medial sole
Medial Calcaneal Nerve - postero-lateral sole
Sural Nerve - Heel