Flashcards in Living Anatomy of the Lower Limb Deck (18):
At what vertebral level is the Posterior Superior Iliac Spine (PSIS)?
What structures of note are at S2?
the middle of the sacro-iliac joints
the bifurcation of the iliac arteries
End of the spinal cord, beginning of the filum terminale
At what vertebral level is the suprcristal plane?
between L4 and L5
For what clinical procedure is the supracristal plane useful?
What are the boundaries of the femoral triangle?
Superior: Inguinal ligament
Lateral border: medial border of sartorius
Medial border: lateral border of adductor magnus
floor: pectineus, iliopsoas etc
roof: fascia lata
What are the contents of the femoral triangle?
From lateral to medial:
Femoral Nerve (N)
Femoral Artery (A)
Femoral Vein (V)
Empty Space (E)
What are the boundaries of the popliteal fossa?
Superomedial: semitendinosus and semimebranosus
Superolater: biceps femoris
Inferomedial and lateral: respectice heads of gastrocnemius
What are the contents of the popliteal fossa?
From lateral to medial:
Tibial Nerve (N)
Popliteal Vein (V)
Popliteal Artery (A)
+ termination of small saphenous vein
+origin of common fibular nerve from tibial nerve
Describe the course of the common fibular nerve
leaves the popliteal fossa and courses around the head of the fibula
at this point it is palpable, but also vulnerable to injury
What are the 4 pulse points in the lower limb commonly used in clinical examination?
Posterior Tibial Pulse
Dorsalis Pedis Pulse
What procedures may be carried out on the femoral artery in the femoral triangle?
Arterial Blood gas (ABG)
What is the clinical use of these pulse points?
Assess the condition of the blood supply to the lower limb
identify the level of any possible obstruction
Describe the superficial venous drainage of the lower limb
2 main veins:
Great Saphenous vein: - past medial malleolus, up medial side of leg, posterior to medial condyle of femur
- formed by union of dorsal venous arch and vein of big toe
Small Saphenous vein: - ascends posterior to lateral malleolus, ascends between heads of gastrocnemius and into popliteal vein
- formed from union of dorsal venous arch and vein of little toe
How do varicose veins arise?
Great saphenous vein prone to becoming varicose
dilates in such a manner that valves do not close
incompetent veins so blood pools
Name the locations of the L3 and L5 dermatomes?
L3 = Knee
L5 = Big Toe
How would you test for the L3 and L4 myotomes?
L2,3 = Hip flexion
L4,5 = Hip extension
How would you test the S1 and S2 myotomes?
S1,2 = Ankle Plantarflexion