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1

to measure water rate and volume there is a need to measure

  1. depth of water
  2. terrain
  3. velocity

2

type of water measurement

  1. overland flow
  2. river discharge
  3. water storage in lakes and reservoir

3

overland flow

surface water runoff that is moving within a watershed toward a river

4

overland flow has usually a ................. distance

short

5

overland flow is calculated by

Q=kiA

6

overland flow is calculated by

Q = KiA

where k =

runoff coefficient

7

overland flow is calculated by

Q = KiA

where i =

rainfall intensity (cm/hr)

8

overland flow is calculated by

Q = KiA

where A =

area of watershed in hectars

9

overland flow is calculated by

Q = KiA

where Q =

peak rate of runoff in m3​/s

10

Q=KiA

this formula is used to 

design storm drains and culverts and other structures that control runoff, primarily in urban areas

11

K is max in 

downtown (0.7 - 0.95)

12

k is min in 

parks (0.1 - 0.25)

13

river discharge is 

the amount of water carried in a river at any time

14

river discharge 

is the amount of water carried in a river at any time, which is the 

volume of water m3

15

river discharge:

is the amount of water carried in a river at anytime, which is the volume of water m3 flowing past 

a given point during a given period of time 

16

river discharge is measured by .................... or ........................

m3/s or L/min

17

river discharge varies from ............................... in small streams 

0.06 m3/s

18

river discharge varies from 0.06 m^3 /s in small streams to ............................ in mississippi river

42,000 - 339,000 m3​/s

19

the highest record was 1.5 x 106 m3/s in the 

amazon river of brazil

20

calculations of river discharge?

  1. measure of the depth of river at a particular cross section
  2. water velocity is measured in several points and depths along the same cross section 
  3. use these data in the equation Q=AV

21

Q=AV

where Q =

discharge average

22

Q=AV

where A =

cross section area of a channel

23

Q=AV

where V =

average water velocity

24

rivers which have continiously changing riverbeds ( that are consistency of ........................)

sand and gravel

25

rivers which have continiously changing riverbeds ( that are consistency of sand and gravel), the measurements are made

weekly to provide more accurate data on the size and shape of the channel bottom

26

factors affecting river discharge?

  1. rock and soil type
  2. land use 
  3. rainfall 
  4. relief
  5. weather conditions
  6.  

27

rock and soil type

sand

absorb water easily so runoff is rare 

 

28

rock and soil type

clay

clay because they are closely packed water reaches the river more quickly

29

rock and soil type

limestone

allow water to pass through porous rocks

30

land use:

in urban city roads

water runs into drains